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      Feasibility of intermittent back-filtrate infusion hemodiafiltration to reduce intradialytic hypotension in patients with cardiovascular instability: a pilot study

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          Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is one of the major problems in performing safe hemodialysis (HD). As blood volume depletion by fluid removal is a major cause of hypotension, careful regulation of blood volume change is fundamental. This study examined the effect of intermittent back-filtrate infusion hemodiafiltration (I-HDF), which modifies infusion and ultrafiltration pattern.


          Purified on-line quality dialysate was intermittently infused by back filtration through the dialysis membrane with a programmed dialysis machine. A bolus of 200 ml of dialysate was infused at 30 min intervals. The volume infused was offset by increasing the fluid removal over the next 30 min by an equivalent amount. Seventy-seven hypotension-prone patients with over 20-mmHg reduction of systolic blood pressure during dialysis or intervention-requirement of more than once a week were included in the crossover study of 4 weeks duration for each modality. In a total of 1632 sessions, the frequency of interventions, the blood pressure, and the pulse rate were documented.


          During I-HDF, interventions for symptomatic hypotension were reduced significantly from 4.5 to 3.0 (per person-month, median) and intradialytic systolic blood pressure was 4 mmHg higher on average. The heart rate was lower during I-HDF than HD in the later session. Older patients and those with greater interdialytic weight gain responded to I-HDF.


          I-HDF could reduce interventions for IDH. It is accompanied with the increased intradialytic blood pressure and the less tachycardia, suggesting less sympathetic stimulation occurs. Thus, I-HDF could be beneficial for some hypotension-prone patients.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Hemodialysis-induced cardiac injury: determinants and associated outcomes.

          Hemodialysis (HD)-induced myocardial stunning driven by ischemia is a recognized complication of HD, which can be ameliorated by HD techniques that improve hemodynamics. In nondialysis patients, repeated ischemia leads to chronic reduction in left ventricular (LV) function. HD may initiate and drive the same process. In this study, we examined the prevalence and associations of HD-induced repetitive myocardial injury and long-term effects on LV function and patient outcomes. Seventy prevalent HD patients were assessed for evidence of subclinical myocardial injury at baseline using serial echocardiography and followed up after 12 mo. Intradialytic blood pressure, hematologic and biochemical samples, and patient demographics were also collected at both time points. Sixty-four percent of patients had significant myocardial stunning during HD. Age, ultrafiltration volumes, intradialytic hypotension, and cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) levels were independent determinants associated with its presence. Myocardial stunning was associated with increased relative mortality at 12 mo (P = 0.019). Cox regression analysis showed increased hazard of death in patients with myocardial stunning and elevated cTnT than in patients with elevated cTnT alone (P < 0.02). Patients with myocardial stunning who survived 12 mo had significantly lower LV ejection fractions at rest and on HD (P < 0.001). HD-induced myocardial stunning is common, and may contribute to the development of heart failure and increased mortality in HD patients. Enhanced understanding of dialysis-induced cardiac injury may provide novel therapeutic targets to reduce currently excessive rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
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            Hemodialysis-associated hypotension as an independent risk factor for two-year mortality in hemodialysis patients.

            The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and mortality in hemodialysis patients has remained controversial. Some studies suggested that a lower pre- or postdialysis BP was associated with excess mortality, while others showed poorer outcome in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. We conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of hemodialysis-associated hypotension on mortality. We recruited 1244 patients (685 males; mean age, 60 +/- 13 years) who underwent hemodialysis in 28 units during the two-year study period beginning in December 1999. Pre-, intra-, and postdialysis BP, and BP upon standing soon after hemodialysis, were measured in all patients at entry. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect on mortality of pre-, intra-, and postdialysis BP, a fall in BP during hemodialysis, and a fall in BP upon standing soon after hemodialysis. During the study period, 149 patients died. Logistic models identified the lowest intradialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP) and degree of fall in SBP upon standing soon after hemodialysis as significant factors affecting mortality, but not pre- or postdialysis SBP and diastolic BP. The adjusted odds ratio for death was 0.79 (95% CI 0.64-0.98) when the lowest intradialysis SBP was analyzed in increments of 20 mm Hg, and was 0.82 (95% CI 0.67-0.98) when the fall in SBP upon standing soon after hemodialysis was analyzed in increments of 10 mm Hg. These results suggest that intradialysis hypotension and orthostatic hypotension after hemodialysis are significant and independent factors affecting mortality in hemodialysis patients.
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              Pathophysiology of dialysis hypotension: an update.

               J Daugirdas (2001)
              Dialysis hypotension occurs because a large volume of blood water and solutes are removed over a short period of time, overwhelming normal compensatory mechanisms, including plasma refilling and reduction of venous capacity, due to reduction of pressure transmission to veins. In some patients, seemingly paradoxical and inappropriate reduction of sympathetic tone may occur, causing reduction of arteriolar resistance, increased transmission of pressure to veins, and corresponding increase in venous capacity. Increased sequestration of blood in veins under conditions of hypovolemia reduces cardiac filling, cardiac output, and, ultimately, blood pressure. Adenosine release due to tissue ischemia may participate in reducing norepinephrine release locally, and activation of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex, perhaps in patients with certain but as yet undefined cardiac pathology, may be responsible for sudden dialysis hypotension. Patients with diastolic dysfunction may be more sensitive to the effects of reduced cardiac filling. The ultimate solution is reducing the ultrafiltration rate by use of longer dialysis sessions, more frequent dialysis, or reduction in salt intake. Increasing dialysis solution sodium chloride levels helps maintain blood volume and refilling but ultimately increases thirst and interdialytic weight gain, with a possible adverse effect on hypertension. Blood volume monitoring with ultrafiltration or dialysis solution sodium feedback loops are promising new strategies. Maintaining tissue oxygenation via an adequate blood hemoglobin level seems to be important. Use of adenosine antagonists remains experimental. Given the importance of sympathetic withdrawal, the use of pharmacologic sympathetic agonists is theoretically an attractive therapeutic strategy.

                Author and article information

                +81256920001 ,
                Clin Exp Nephrol
                Clin. Exp. Nephrol
                Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
                Springer Japan (Tokyo )
                28 April 2016
                28 April 2016
                : 21
                : 2
                : 324-332
                [1 ]Koda Medical and Dialysis Clinic, 3748 Yoshida, Tsubame, Niigata 959-0264 Japan
                [2 ]Koyo Medical Clinic, Konan-ku, Niigata, 950-0121 Japan
                [3 ]Kashiwazaki General Medical Center, Kashiwazaki, Niigata 945-8535 Japan
                [4 ]Niigata Rinko Hospital, Higashi-ku, Niigata, 950-8725 Japan
                [5 ]Nakagawa Medical Clinic, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-0157 Japan
                [6 ]Iwabuchi Clinic, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 320-0811 Japan
                [7 ]Gyoda General Hospital, Gyoda, Saitama 361-0056 Japan
                [8 ]Kuki General Hospital, Kuki, Saitama 346-0021 Japan
                [9 ]Ogawa Hospital, Hiki, Saitama 355-0317 Japan
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © Japanese Society of Nephrology 2017


                hemodiafiltration, intermittent back-filtrate infusion, hypotension


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