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      Prevalence and Characteristics of Chronic Intensive Care–Related Pain : The Role of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock

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          Abstract

          There is only limited knowledge about chronic pain conditions resulting from critical care. Experimental and clinical data suggest a close relationship between inflammation and pain perception. Since sepsis is the most severe form of systemic inflammation, the primary objective was to evaluate chronic pain states and functional impairment of septic and nonseptic patients 6 months after discharge from ICU. Second, we aimed to obtain the total prevalence and characteristics of chronic ICU-related pain.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Grading the severity of chronic pain.

          This research develops and evaluates a simple method of grading the severity of chronic pain for use in general population surveys and studies of primary care pain patients. Measures of pain intensity, disability, persistence and recency of onset were tested for their ability to grade chronic pain severity in a longitudinal study of primary care back pain (n = 1213), headache (n = 779) and temporomandibular disorder pain (n = 397) patients. A Guttman scale analysis showed that pain intensity and disability measures formed a reliable hierarchical scale. Pain intensity measures appeared to scale the lower range of global severity while disability measures appeared to scale the upper range of global severity. Recency of onset and days in pain in the prior 6 months did not scale with pain intensity or disability. Using simple scoring rules, pain severity was graded into 4 hierarchical classes: Grade I, low disability--low intensity; Grade II, low disability--high intensity; Grade III, high disability--moderately limiting; and Grade IV, high disability--severely limiting. For each pain site, Chronic Pain Grade measured at baseline showed a highly statistically significant and monotonically increasing relationship with unemployment rate, pain-related functional limitations, depression, fair to poor self-rated health, frequent use of opioid analgesics, and frequent pain-related doctor visits both at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Days in Pain was related to these variables, but not as strongly as Chronic Pain Grade. Recent onset cases (first onset within the prior 3 months) did not show differences in psychological and behavioral dysfunction when compared to persons with less recent onset. Using longitudinal data from a population-based study (n = 803), Chronic Pain Grade at baseline predicted the presence of pain in the prior 2 weeks. Chronic Pain Grade and pain-related functional limitations at 3-year follow-up. Grading chronic pain as a function of pain intensity and pain-related disability may be useful when a brief ordinal measure of global pain severity is required. Pain persistence, measured by days in pain in a fixed time period, provides useful additional information.
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            Long-term mortality and quality of life in sepsis: a systematic review.

            Long-term outcomes from sepsis are poorly understood, and sepsis in patients may have different long-term effects on mortality and quality of life. Long-term outcome studies of other critical illnesses such as acute lung injury have demonstrated incremental health effects that persist after hospital discharge. Whether patients with sepsis have similar long-term mortality and quality-of-life effects is unclear. We performed a systematic review of studies reporting long-term mortality and quality-of-life data (>3 months) in patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock using defined search criteria. Systematic review of the literature. None. Patients with sepsis showed ongoing mortality up to 2 yrs and beyond after the standard 28-day inhospital mortality end point. Patients with sepsis also had decrements in quality-of-life measures after hospital discharge. Results were consistent across varying severity of illness and different patient populations in different countries, including large and small studies. In addition, these results were consistent within observational and randomized, controlled trials. Study quality was limited by inadequate control groups and poor adjustment for confounding variables. Patients with sepsis have ongoing mortality beyond short-term end points, and survivors consistently demonstrate impaired quality of life. The use of 28-day mortality as an end point for clinical studies may lead to inaccurate inferences. Both observational and interventional future studies should include longer-term end points to better-understand the natural history of sepsis and the effect of interventions on patient morbidities.
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              Quality of life in adult survivors of critical illness: a systematic review of the literature.

              To determine how the quality of life (QOL) of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors compares with the general population, changes over time, and is predicted by baseline characteristics. Systematic literature review including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. Eligible studies measured QOL > or = 30 days after ICU discharge using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36), EuroQol-5D, Sickness Impact Profile, or Nottingham Health Profile in representative populations of adult ICU survivors. Disease-specific studies were excluded. Of 8,894 citations identified, 21 independent studies with 7,320 patients were reviewed. Three of three studies found that ICU survivors had significantly lower QOL prior to admission than did a matched general population. During post-discharge follow-up, ICU survivors had significantly lower QOL scores than the general population in each SF-36 domain (except bodily pain) in at least four of seven studies. Over 1-12 months of follow-up, at least two of four studies found clinically meaningful improvement in each SF-36 domain except mental health and general health perceptions. A majority of studies found that age and severity of illness predicted physical functioning. Compared with the general population, ICU survivors report lower QOL prior to ICU admission. After hospital discharge, QOL in ICU survivors improves but remains lower than general population levels. Age and severity of illness are predictors of physical functioning. This systematic review provides a general understanding of QOL following critical illness and can serve as a standard of comparison for QOL studies in specific ICU subpopulations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Critical Care Medicine
                Critical Care Medicine
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0090-3493
                2016
                June 2016
                : 44
                : 6
                : 1129-1137
                Article
                10.1097/CCM.0000000000001635
                26958751
                52173758-cba3-4564-8a29-8c511ff9b115
                © 2016

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