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          Health services in Saudi Arabia have developed enormously over the last two decades, as evidenced by the availability of health facilities throughout all parts of the vast Kingdom. The Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) provides over 60% of these services while the rest are shared among other government agencies and the private sector. A series of development plans in Saudi Arabia have established the infra-structure for the expansion of curative services all over the country. Rapid development in medical education and the training of future Saudi health manpower have also taken place. Future challenges facing the Saudi health system are to be addressed in order to achieve the ambitious goals set by the most recent health development plan. These include the optimum utilization of current health resources with competent health managerial skills, the search for alternative means of financing these services, the maintenance of a balance between curative and preventive services, the expansion of training Saudi health manpower to meet the increasing demand, and the implementation of a comprehensive primary health care program.

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          Most cited references 16

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          World Health Organization, The world Health Report 1997

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            Culturally competent health care: a challenge for nurses in Saudi Arabia.

             L. LUNA (1998)
            An emerging global reality is the presence of a culturally diverse workforce in health care environments. Not only are nurses delivering care to culturally diverse clients, the nurses themselves may come from different cultural and educational backgrounds. In order to provide culturally competent health care, such diversity must be molded into professional collaboration and respect. To date, health care to the citizens of Saudi Arabia has been provided largely by a foreign labor force, the vast majority of whom are non-Arabic speaking. This paper explores a number of strategies aimed at educating expatriate non-Saudi health professionals in the provision of culturally competent and culturally congruent health care. Leininger's transcultural health care theory is identified as the framework for achieving this goal. The theory has proved to be of great relevance in a hospital setting where some 40 different nationalities are represented among the work force. In such a setting, the potential for cultural conflict and stress is very real. Health professionals new to the Kingdom are introduced to the cultural dimensions of health care as it relates to patient care modes, as well as living and working together in a transcultural environment. Transcultural nursing is a major component of a professional nurse practice model which provides a visionary perspective for nursing care. Within the practice model, transcultural care principles are used to guide education, clinical practice and nursing research. Furthermore, Leininger's theory serves to grasp a comprehensive view of generic (folk) and professional health systems and to identify ethical issues confronted by nurses in the transcultural setting.
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              Ministry of Planning, Sixth Development Plan 1995 -2000


                Author and article information

                J Family Community Med
                J Family Community Med
                Journal of Family & Community Medicine
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Sep-Dec 2001
                : 8
                : 3
                : 19-23
                [* ] Shourah Council, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [] Medical School, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
                [] Joint Program of Family and Community Medicine, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr. Waleed Milaat, P.O. Box 984, Jeddah 21421, Saudi Arabia
                Copyright: © Journal of Family and Community Medicine

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Health & Social care

                health statistics, primary health care, saudi arabia, health system


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