ABSTRACT This study aims to report the occurrence of Heilipus draco in seeds of Ocotea puberula, and to describe the main injuries caused to the seeds and the effects on germination, as well as the occurrence of parasitoid hymenopterans. To this end, fruits of seven trees were selected, in the extreme south of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Fruit collection was carried out weekly in the middle third of the canopy, forming lots, from the beginning of fruit formation until total dehiscence, for two years. In order to examine the damage caused by the granivorous insects inside the fruits, 100 fruits were sectioned taking into account the batch/year with the aid of a scalpel and analyzed using a binocular stereomicroscope. In the same way, 144 fruits from each lot/year were stored individually in transparent plates in order to verify the occurrence and identification of species of granivorous insects. The proof of the influence of the injury caused to the seeds by the granivorous insects was carried out by the germination test, with four replications of 25 seeds, comparing seeds with and without oviposition holes. The species H. draco was found to be associated with the fruits of O. puberula. The egg-layings are endophytic, carried out directly on the seed. Larval parasitism of Hymenoptera Bracon, Omeganastatus, Scambus and Triapsis was observed. It is concluded that the cycle from egg to adult takes place inside the seed of O. puberula, and the injuries caused by the larvae decrease germination.