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      Effects of Combination Treatment with Losartan and Trandolapril on Office and Ambulatory Blood Pressures in Non-Diabetic Renal Disease: A COOPERATE-ABP Substudy

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          Background: In the COOPERATE trial, the combination treatment of the angiotensin-II receptor blocker losartan and the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor trandolapril significantly retarded progression of non-diabetic kidney disease compared with each monotherapy. The benefit could be greatly attributable to the potent reduction of proteinuria, because the three treatment groups showed the same reductions of office blood pressure (OBP). Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is reported to be better than OBP in predicting progression of kidney disease. Methods: Ninety-two patients enrolled in the COOPERATE trial underwent 24-hour ABP monitoring at randomization and at month 6, year 1, year 2 and year 3 on randomized treatment. Results: Both OBP and ABP were similarly reduced among the three groups at all measurement points (p = NS) and throughout the whole study period (p = NS). No significant correlation between the change in 24-hour ABP and the change in proteinuria was seen (p = NS). A Cox-multivariable analysis showed that covariates affecting the renal outcomes (a doubling serum-Cr level and/or end-stage renal failure) were the change in proteinuria (hazard ratio 0.49, 95% CI 0.34–0.78, p = 0.01) and treatments (0.58, 0.45–0.99, 0.03), but not 24-hour ABP (0.98, 0.89–2.01, 0.17). Conclusion: The better renoprotective effect of the combination treatment is attributed to BP-independent mechanisms by more complete renin-angiotensin system blockade.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Effect of Blood Pressure Lowering and Antihypertensive Drug Class on Progression of Hypertensive Kidney DiseaseResults From the AASK Trial

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            Combination treatment of angiotensin-II receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor in non-diabetic renal disease (COOPERATE): a randomised controlled trial.

            Present angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor treatment fails to prevent progression of non-diabetic renal disease. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of combined treatment of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin-II receptor blocker, and monotherapy of each drug at its maximum dose, in patients with non-diabetic renal disease. 336 patients with non-diabetic renal disease were enrolled from one renal outpatient department in Japan. After screening and an 18-week run-in period, 263 patients were randomly assigned angiotensin-II receptor blocker (losartan, 100 mg daily), angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril, 3 mg daily), or a combination of both drugs at equivalent doses. Survival analysis was done to compare the effects of each regimen on the combined primary endpoint of time to doubling of serum creatinine concentration or end-stage renal disease. Analysis was by intention to treat. Seven patients discontinued or were otherwise lost to follow-up. Ten (11%) of 85 patients on combination treatment reached the combined primary endpoint compared with 20 (23%) of 85 on trandolapril alone (hazard ratio 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.63, p=0.018) and 20 (23%) of 86 on losartan alone (0.40, 0.17-0.69, p=0.016). Covariates affecting renal survival were combination treatment (hazard ratio 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.63, p=0.011), age (1.30, 1.03-2.29, p=0.009), baseline renal function (1.80, 1.02-2.99, p=0.021), change in daily urinary protein excretion rate (0.58, 0.24-0.88, p=0.022), use of diuretics (0.80, 0.30-0.94, p=0.043), and antiproteinuric response to trandolapril (0.81, 0.21-0.91, p=0.039). Frequency of side-effects with combination treatment was the same as with trandolapril alone. Combination treatment safely retards progression of non-diabetic renal disease compared with monotherapy. However, since some patients reached the combined primary endpoint on combined treatment, further strategies for complete management of progressive non-diabetic renal disease need to be researched.
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              [Update S3-guideline "colorectal cancer" 2008].


                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                October 2004
                01 December 2004
                : 24
                : 5
                : 543-548
                aKaikou-Kai Central Clinic, Division Nephrology, Nagaya Kyoritsu Hospital, Nagoy and bDivision of Nephrology and Dialysis Center, Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
                81953 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:543–548
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 12, Pages: 6
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                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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