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Electrochemical Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes

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      Abstract

      This review focuses on recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs have unique mechanical and electronic properties, combined with chemical stability, and behave electrically as a metal or semiconductor, depending on their structure. For sensing applications, CNTs have many advantages such as small size with larger surface area, excellent electron transfer promoting ability when used as electrodes modifier in electrochemical reactions, and easy protein immobilization with retention of its activity for potential biosensors. CNTs play an important role in the performance of electrochemical biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Various methods have been developed for the design of sensors using CNTs in recent years. Herein we summarize the applications of CNTs in the construction of electrochemical sensors and biosensors along with other nanomaterials and conducting polymers.

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      Most cited references 228

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      Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon

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        Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays with high electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction.

        The large-scale practical application of fuel cells will be difficult to realize if the expensive platinum-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) cannot be replaced by other efficient, low-cost, and stable electrodes. Here, we report that vertically aligned nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (VA-NCNTs) can act as a metal-free electrode with a much better electrocatalytic activity, long-term operation stability, and tolerance to crossover effect than platinum for oxygen reduction in alkaline fuel cells. In air-saturated 0.1 molar potassium hydroxide, we observed a steady-state output potential of -80 millivolts and a current density of 4.1 milliamps per square centimeter at -0.22 volts, compared with -85 millivolts and 1.1 milliamps per square centimeter at -0.20 volts for a platinum-carbon electrode. The incorporation of electron-accepting nitrogen atoms in the conjugated nanotube carbon plane appears to impart a relatively high positive charge density on adjacent carbon atoms. This effect, coupled with aligning the NCNTs, provides a four-electron pathway for the ORR on VA-NCNTs with a superb performance.
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          Electrochemical glucose biosensors.

           Joseph Wang (2008)
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
            [2 ] Department of Applied Chemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, Korea
            Author notes
            [* ]Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mails: jjlee@ 123456kku.ac.kr (J.J.L.); marahman@ 123456kku.ac.kr (M.A.R.); Tel.: +82-43-840-3580, +82-43-840-3568; Fax: +82-43-851-4169
            Journal
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
            Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
            1424-8220
            2009
            30 March 2009
            : 9
            : 4
            : 2289-2319
            3348810
            22574013
            10.3390/s90402289
            sensors-09-02289
            © 2009 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

            This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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