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      Will protection of 17% of land by 2020 be enough to safeguard biodiversity and critical ecosystem services?

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      Oryx

      Cambridge University Press (CUP)

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          Approaching a state shift in Earth's biosphere.

          Localized ecological systems are known to shift abruptly and irreversibly from one state to another when they are forced across critical thresholds. Here we review evidence that the global ecosystem as a whole can react in the same way and is approaching a planetary-scale critical transition as a result of human influence. The plausibility of a planetary-scale 'tipping point' highlights the need to improve biological forecasting by detecting early warning signs of critical transitions on global as well as local scales, and by detecting feedbacks that promote such transitions. It is also necessary to address root causes of how humans are forcing biological changes.
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            Economic reasons for conserving wild nature.

            On the eve of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, it is timely to assess progress over the 10 years since its predecessor in Rio de Janeiro. Loss and degradation of remaining natural habitats has continued largely unabated. However, evidence has been accumulating that such systems generate marked economic benefits, which the available data suggest exceed those obtained from continued habitat conversion. We estimate that the overall benefit:cost ratio of an effective global program for the conservation of remaining wild nature is at least 100:1.
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              CO2 emissions from forest loss

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                applab
                Oryx
                Oryx
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0030-6053
                1365-3008
                January 2015
                May 12 2014
                January 2015
                : 49
                : 01
                : 74-79
                Article
                10.1017/S0030605313001348
                © 2015

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