Subconjunctivally injected Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae (Mf) migrate into the guinea pig cornea, resulting, when the microfilariae die, in punctate stromal opacities resembling those of human onchocerciasis. Administration of diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC-C) following subconjunctival injection of Mf increased the proportion of dead Mf in the cornea, the number of punctate opacities and the extent of peripheral corneal neovascularization. Betamethasone (a synthetic steroid) and lodoxamide tromethamine (an inhibitor of mediator release from mast cells) inhibited the formation of punctate opacities. Chlorphe-niramine maleate and cimetidine (H1 and H2 histamine receptor antagonists), given together, did not alter the formation of punctate opacities but inhibited the peripheral corneal neovascularization. These observations suggest that mast cell mediators other than histamine may be of importance in the formation of the corneal punctate opacities.