+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Synergistic Interaction between Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. Essential Oil and Cloxacillin on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Inhibition


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Currently, antibiotic resistance is widespread among bacteria. This problem requires greater awareness because bacterial resistance increases, reducing antibiotic use effectiveness. Consequently, new alternative treatments are needed because the treatment options for these bacteria are limited. This work aims to determine the synergistic interaction and mechanism of action of Boesenbergia rotunda essential oil (BREO) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 24 BREO chemicals (GC-MS). The main components of BREO were β-ocimene (36.73%), trans-geraniol (25.29%), camphor (14.98%), and eucalyptol (8.99%). BREO and CLX inhibited MRSA DMST 20649, 20651, and 20652 with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 mg/mL and 512  µg/mL, respectively. The checkerboard method and the time-kill assay revealed synergy between BREO and CLX with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) <0.5 and log reduction >2log10 CFU/mL at 24 hours compared to the most effective chemical. BREO inhibited biofilm formation and increased membrane permeability. Exposure alone to BREO or in combination with CLX inhibited biofilm formation and increased cytoplasmic membrane (CM) permeability. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results revealed that alterations in the cell walls, cytoplasmic membrane, and leakage of intracellular components of MRSA DMST 20651 after treatment with BREO alone and in combination with CLX were observed. These results indicate that BREO synergizes and could reverse the antibacterial activity of CLX against MRSA strains. The synergy of BREO may lead to novel drug combinations that increase the effectiveness of antibiotics against MRSA.

          Related collections

          Most cited references44

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The antibiotic resistance crisis: part 1: causes and threats.

          Decades after the first patients were treated with antibiotics, bacterial infections have again become a threat because of the rapid emergence of resistant bacteria-a crisis attributed to abuse of these medications and a lack of new drug development.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance.

            Antibiotics have always been considered one of the wonder discoveries of the 20th century. This is true, but the real wonder is the rise of antibiotic resistance in hospitals, communities, and the environment concomitant with their use. The extraordinary genetic capacities of microbes have benefitted from man's overuse of antibiotics to exploit every source of resistance genes and every means of horizontal gene transmission to develop multiple mechanisms of resistance for each and every antibiotic introduced into practice clinically, agriculturally, or otherwise. This review presents the salient aspects of antibiotic resistance development over the past half-century, with the oft-restated conclusion that it is time to act. To achieve complete restitution of therapeutic applications of antibiotics, there is a need for more information on the role of environmental microbiomes in the rise of antibiotic resistance. In particular, creative approaches to the discovery of novel antibiotics and their expedited and controlled introduction to therapy are obligatory.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Synergy, antagonism, and what the chequerboard puts between them.

              F C Odds (2003)

                Author and article information

                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                16 April 2023
                16 April 2023
                : 2023
                : 3453273
                1School of Preclinical Sciences, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand
                2School of Biology, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand
                3Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Burapha University, Chon Buri 20131, Thailand
                4Research Unit for Sensor Innovation (RUSI), Burapha University, Chonburi 20131, Thailand
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Sekar Vijayakumar

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Chittadech Apinundecha et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 23 October 2022
                : 26 November 2022
                : 18 March 2023
                Funded by: Thai Government Scholarship
                Funded by: Suranaree University of Technology
                Research Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                Complementary & Alternative medicine


                Comment on this article