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      Psychometric validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder-20 Test among Chinese middle school and university students

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          Background and aims

          Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was proposed in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of American Psychiatric Association as an area warranting more research attention. High prevalence of excessive Internet game use and related addictions has been reported in China, especially among youth; however, there is a lack of psychometrically and theoretically sound instruments for assessing IGD in the Chinese language.


          This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGD-20 Test) among Chinese middle school ( n = 569; M age = 13.34; 46.2% females) and university students ( n = 523; M age = 20.12; 48.4% females) samples in Beijing, China. All participants voluntarily completed an anonymous questionnaire.


          Confirmatory factor analysis results showed that the Chinese version of the IGD-20 Test had five factors (i.e., salience-tolerance, mood modification, withdrawal, conflict, and relapse). Measurement invariance was confirmed across the two samples. The test score was positively associated with the modified Young’s Internet Addiction Test for gaming addiction. Concurrent validation was further demonstrated by the IGD-20 Test’s positive correlation with weekly gameplay and depression symptoms. The latent profile analysis showed four different gamer classes (i.e., regular gamers, low-risk engaged gamers, high-risk engaged gamers, and probable disordered gamers), with the estimated prevalence of 2.1% of the last group.

          Discussion and conclusion

          The IGD-20 Test was applicable to Chinese youth and its Chinese version generally demonstrated good psychometric properties.

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          Most cited references 33

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          A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework

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            Toward a consensus definition of pathological video-gaming: a systematic review of psychometric assessment tools.

            Pathological video-gaming, or its proposed DSM-V classification of "Internet Use Disorder", is of increasing interest to scholars and practitioners in allied health disciplines. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the standards in pathological video-gaming instrumentation, according to Cicchetti (1994) and Groth-Marnat's (2009) criteria and guidelines for sound psychometric assessment. A total of 63 quantitative studies, including eighteen instruments and representing 58,415 participants, were evaluated. Results indicated that reviewed instrumentation may be broadly characterized as inconsistent. Strengths of available measures include: (i) short length and ease of scoring, (ii) excellent internal consistency and convergent validity, and (iii) potentially adequate data for development of standardized norms for adolescent populations. However, key limitations included: (a) inconsistent coverage of core addiction indicators, (b) varying cut-off scores to indicate clinical status, (c) a lack of a temporal dimension, (d) untested or inconsistent dimensionality, and (e) inadequate data on predictive validity and inter-rater reliability. An emerging consensus suggests that pathological video-gaming is commonly defined by (1) withdrawal, (2) loss of control, and (3) conflict. It is concluded that a unified approach to assessment of pathological video-gaming is needed. A synthesis of extant research efforts by meta-analysis may be difficult in the context of several divergent approaches to assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Translation and validation of study instruments for cross-cultural research.

               Ami Sperber (2003)
              Cross-cultural research often involves physicians, nurses, and other health care providers. In studies of fecal and urinary incontinence, cross-cultural research has been applied to quality-of-life comparisons, and instruments have been translated to foreign languages for use in other countries. This report presents some of the principal methodological issues and problems associated with translating questionnaires for use in cross-cultural research in a manner relevant to clinicians and health care practitioners who are aware that, unless these potential problems are addressed, the results of their research may be suspect. Translation is the most common method of preparing instruments for cross-cultural research and has pitfalls that threaten validity. Some of these problems are difficult to detect and may have a detrimental effect on the study results. Identification and correction of problems can enhance research quality and validity. A method for translation and validation is presented in detail. However, the specific validation method adopted is less important than the recognition that the translation process must be appropriate and the validation process rigorous.

                Author and article information

                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                23 May 2019
                June 2019
                : 8
                : 2
                : 295-305
                [1 ]Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences (FSS), University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Macao, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Prof. Dr. Anise M. S. Wu; Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences (FSS), University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao, China; Phone: +853 8822 8377; Fax: +853 8822 2337; E-mail: anisewu@
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 43, Pages: 11
                Funding sources: The research was supported by the research grant of the University of Macau (ref. no.: MYRG2016-00162-FSS). The funding source had no role in the study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication.
                Full-Length Report

                youth, assessment, addiction, online game, igd-20 test


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