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      Multiple Applications of Alamar Blue as an Indicator of Metabolic Function and Cellular Health in Cell Viability Bioassays

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          Abstract

          Accurate prediction of the adverse effects of test compounds on living systems, detection of toxic thresholds, and expansion of experimental data sets to include multiple toxicity end-point analysis are required for any robust screening regime. Alamar Blue is an important redox indicator that is used to evaluate metabolic function and cellular health. The Alamar Blue bioassay has been utilized over the past 50 years to assess cell viability and cytotoxicity in a range of biological and environmental systems and in a number of cell types including bacteria, yeast, fungi, protozoa and cultured mammalian and piscine cells. It offers several advantages over other metabolic indicators and other cytotoxicity assays. However, as with any bioassay, suitability must be determined for each application and cell model. This review seeks to highlight many of the important considerations involved in assay use and design in addition to the potential pitfalls.

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          Most cited references 94

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          Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: Application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays

          A tetrazolium salt has been used to develop a quantitative colorimetric assay for mammalian cell survival and proliferation. The assay detects living, but not dead cells and the signal generated is dependent on the degree of activation of the cells. This method can therefore be used to measure cytotoxicity, proliferation or activation. The results can be read on a multiwell scanning spectrophotometer (ELISA reader) and show a high degree of precision. No washing steps are used in the assay. The main advantages of the colorimetric assay are its rapidity and precision, and the lack of any radioisotope. We have used the assay to measure proliferative lymphokines, mitogen stimulations and complement-mediated lysis.
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            Understanding biofilm resistance to antibacterial agents.

             David Davies (2003)
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              Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles.

              Human exposure to nanoparticles is inevitable as nanoparticles become more widely used and, as a result, nanotoxicology research is now gaining attention. However, while the number of nanoparticle types and applications continues to increase, studies to characterize their effects after exposure and to address their potential toxicity are few in comparison. In the medical field in particular, nanoparticles are being utilized in diagnostic and therapeutic tools to better understand, detect, and treat human diseases. Exposure to nanoparticles for medical purposes involves intentional contact or administration; therefore, understanding the properties of nanoparticles and their effect on the body is crucial before clinical use can occur. This Review presents a summary of the in vitro cytotoxicity data currently available on three classes of nanoparticles. With each of these nanoparticles, different data has been published about their cytotoxicity due to varying experimental conditions as well as differing nanoparticle physiochemical properties. For nanoparticles to move into the clinical arena, it is important that nanotoxicology research uncovers and understands how these multiple factors influence the toxicity of nanoparticles so that their undesirable properties can be avoided.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                1424-8220
                2012
                10 September 2012
                : 12
                : 9
                : 12347-12360
                Affiliations
                Department of Life Sciences, The University of the West Indies, West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago; E-Mail: Sephra.Rampersad@ 123456sta.uwi.edu ; Tel.: +1-868-662-2002 (ext. 83109); Fax: +1-868-663-5241
                Article
                sensors-12-12347
                10.3390/s120912347
                3478843
                23112716
                © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Biomedical engineering

                resazurin, cytotoxicity, cell viability, alamar blue

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