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      The Role of Induced Sputum in Amiodarone-Associated Interstitial Lung Diseases

      a , b , b , c

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      Induced sputum, Amiodarone

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          Abstract

          Amiodarone, a highly effective medication for suppressing cardiac rhythm disturbances, may cause pulmonary injury, such as chronic interstitial lung diseases, in 5–15% of the patients who take it. We applied induced sputum (IS), a non-invasive technique, for diagnosing amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity. Four patients with interstitial lung disease who were treated by amiodarone for ischemic heart diseases were evaluated by a conventional clinical workup. All four patients showed marked interstitial pattern on computerized tomography and decreased diffusion capacity (DLCO-SB 51–76%). IS showed lymphocytosis, a high CD4 or CD8 count, eosinophilia and amiodarone in 3 of 4 patients. IS may be a useful tool for assessing amiodarone toxicity in patients with ischemic heart diseases and concomitant pulmonary side effects.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Use of induced sputum cell counts to investigate airway inflammation in asthma.

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            The evaluation of a cell dispersion method of sputum examination.

            In recent studies, sputum smear cell counts were found to be reproducible and usefully applied to research in asthma and other airway conditions. However, cell definition on the smears is poor, and the procedure is tedious and has limited utility. The objective of this study is to improve the methods of sputum examination. The subjects used in this study were people with bronchitis or asthma from whom sputum could be obtained. By inverted microscopy, portions of fresh sputum were selected to exclude salivary contamination. These portions were exposed to different volumes of dithiothreitol for varied time intervals. We used the resulting cell suspensions to perform total cell counts and prepare cytospins for differential cell counts and immunohistochemical stains for GM-CSF, EG2, TNF alpha and IL-8. Cytospins were compared with smears for differential cell counts on the same sputum specimens. Excellent cell dispersion and definition in cytospins could be observed. The time required for differential cell counting on cytospins was reduced and cytospin counts were more reproducible than smears. Greater duration of treatment of sputum with dithiothreitol tended to increase total cell counts and significantly decreased EG2 staining but had no effect on differential cell counts or the cytokine cell components. Therefore the proposed method of sputum examination involving cell dispersion and use of cytospins overcomes a number of the disadvantages of the examination of smears.
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              Is amiodarone an underrecognized cause of acute respiratory failure in the ICU?

              Amiodarone is a commonly used anti-arrhythmic agent, with well-recognized chronic toxicity. Less well known is amiodarone's potential to cause acute lung damage, which can be severe or, occasionally, life-threatening. Lungs that have already been exposed to physical insults, such as the lungs of patients undergoing cardiac surgery, are particularly susceptible to acute pulmonary toxicity (APT). Unfortunately, cardiac surgery is one of the clinical scenarios in which amiodarone is most commonly used. After reviewing the data, and even in the context of difficulties and discrepancies in the existing literature, we contend that there is sufficient evidence of amiodarone's potentially serious side-effect profile in surgical ICU patients to advise continued caution in its use with this severely ill patient group. We suggest that amiodarone has a potentially important, though underrecognized, role in inducing an APT/ARDS in some patients, such as those undergoing cardiac surgery. We also provide a hypothesis to explain the mechanism by which amiodarone causes lung damage.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                November 2007
                07 November 2006
                : 108
                : 4
                : 223-227
                Affiliations
                aThe Institute of Pulmonary and Allergic Diseases, bDepartment of Cardiology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, cThe Department of Pulmonary Medicine, The Edith Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel
                Article
                96782 Cardiology 2007;108:223–227
                10.1159/000096782
                17095870
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Research

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