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      Genotype identification and phylogenetic analysis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in farmed black goats ( Capra hircus) from China’s Hainan Province Translated title: Identification du génotype et analyse phylogénétique d’ Enterocytozoon bieneusi chez des chèvres noires ( Capra hircus) de la province de Hainan, en Chine

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          Abstract

          Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an important pathogen commonly found in humans and animals. Farmed animals with close contact to humans are important hosts of E. bieneusi. The role of goats in the transmission of E. bieneusi, however, remains unclear. In this study, 341 fresh fecal samples of black goats were collected from five locations in Hainan Province, China. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was identified and genotyped by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by constructing a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences. The average prevalence of E. bieneusi in black goats was 24.0% (82/341) with rates ranging from 6.3% (4/63) to 37.2% (32/86) across the locations ( χ 2 = 17.252, p < 0.01). Eight genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified, including six known genotypes: CHG5 ( n = 47); CHG3 ( n = 23); CHG2 ( n = 4); CM21 ( n = 3); D ( n = 2); and AHG1 ( n = 1), and two novel genotypes termed HNG-I ( n = 1) and HNG-II ( n = 1). In the phylogenetic tree, genotype D was clustered into Group 1 and the other identified genotypes were included in Group 2. This represents the first report identifying E. bieneusi in black goats from Hainan Province, with a high prevalence and wide occurrence demonstrated. The two new genotypes identified provide additional insights into the genotypic variations in E. bieneusi. Due to the small percentage of zoonotic genotypes in these animals, there is minimal risk of zoonotic transmission of E. bieneusi.

          Translated abstract

          Enterocytozoon bieneusi est un agent pathogène important que l’on trouve couramment chez l’homme et les animaux. Les animaux d’élevage, en contact étroit avec l’homme, sont des hôtes importants d’ E. bieneusi. Le rôle des chèvres dans la transmission d’ E. bieneusi reste toutefois incertain. Dans cette étude, 341 échantillons de fèces fraîches de chèvres noires ont été prélevés dans cinq sites de la province de Hainan, en Chine. Enterocytozoon bieneusi a été identifié et génotypé par des séquences de la région de l’espaceur interne transcrit (ITS). L’analyse phylogénétique a été réalisée en construisant un arbre de jonction voisine des séquences du gène ITS. La prévalence moyenne d’ E. bieneusi chez les chèvres noires était de 24,0 % (82/341), avec des taux allant de 6,3 % (4/63) à 37,2 % (32/86) dans tous les sites ( χ 2 = 17,252, p < 0,01). Huit génotypes d’ E. bieneusi ont été identifiés, dont six génotypes connus: CHG5 ( n = 47) ; CHG3 ( n = 23) ; CHG2 ( n = 4) ; CM21 ( n = 3) ; D ( n = 2) ; AHG1 ( n = 1) et deux nouveaux génotypes appelés HNG-I ( n = 1) et HNG-II ( n = 1). Dans l’arbre phylogénétique, le génotype D appartenait au groupe 1 et les autres génotypes identifiés étaient inclus dans le groupe 2. Il s’agit du premier rapport identifiant E. bieneusi chez des chèvres noires de la province de Hainan, avec une prévalence élevée et une occurrence étendue. Les deux nouveaux génotypes identifiés fournissent des informations supplémentaires sur les variations génotypiques chez E. bieneusi. En raison du faible pourcentage de génotypes zoonotiques chez ces animaux, le risque de transmission zoonotique d’ E. bieneusi est minime.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Microsporidiosis: Enterocytozoon bieneusi in domesticated and wild animals.

          Microsporidia are a ubiquitous group of obligate intracellular parasites that infect all major animal groups. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most commonly identified Microsporidia in humans and has also been reported worldwide in animals with importance in veterinary medicine (e.g., cats, dogs, horses, cattle and pigs). The identification of E. bieneusi in animals has raised the question of the importance of animal reservoirs in the epidemiology of this pathogen, and the implications of the infection with this pathogen in infected animals. Considerable genetic diversity within E. bieneusi has been found with over 90 genotypes identified based on the ITS nucleotide sequence of E. bieneusi spores recovered from the feces of infected humans and animals. Both host-adapted E. bieneusi genotypes with narrow host ranges and potentially zoonotic genotypes with wide host specificity have been identified. The information presented in this review should be useful in understanding the taxonomy, epidemiology, zoonotic potential, and importance in public health of E. bieneusi. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.
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            Molecular Surveillance of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by Genotyping and Subtyping Parasites in Wastewater

             Na Li,  Lihua Xiao,  Lin Wang (2012)
            Background Despite their wide occurrence, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are considered neglected diseases by the World Health Organization. The epidemiology of these diseases and microsporidiosis in humans in developing countries is poorly understood. The high concentration of pathogens in raw sewage makes the characterization of the transmission of these pathogens simple through the genotype and subtype analysis of a small number of samples. Methodology/Principal Findings The distribution of genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in 386 samples of combined sewer systems from Shanghai, Nanjing and Wuhan and the sewer system in Qingdao in China was determined using PCR-sequencing tools. Eimeria spp. were also genotyped to assess the contribution of domestic animals to Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi in wastewater. The high occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. (56.2%), G. duodenalis (82.6%), E. bieneusi (87.6%), and Eimeria/Cyclospora (80.3%) made the source attribution possible. As expected, several human-pathogenic species/genotypes, including Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, G. duodenalis sub-assemblage A-II, and E. bieneusi genotype D, were the dominant parasites in wastewater. In addition to humans, the common presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Eimeria spp. from rodents indicated that rodents might have contributed to the occurrence of E. bieneusi genotype D in samples. Likewise, the finding of Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium baileyi from birds indicated that C. meleagridis might be of both human and bird origins. Conclusions/Significance The distribution of Cryptosporidium species, G. duodenalis genotypes and subtypes, and E. bieneusi genotypes in urban wastewater indicates that anthroponotic transmission appeared to be important in epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis in the study areas. The finding of different distributions of subtypes between Shanghai and Wuhan was indicative of possible differences in the source of C. hominis among different areas in China.
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              Epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Humans

              A review was conducted to examine published works that focus on the complex epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in humans. Studies on the prevalence of these emerging microsporidian pathogens in humans, in developed and developing countries, the different clinical spectra of E. bieneusi intestinal infection in children, in different settings, and the risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection have been reviewed. This paper also analyses the impact of the recent application of PCR-based molecular methods for species-specific identification and genotype differentiation has had in increasing the knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in humans. The advances in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi, in the last two decades, emphasize the importance of epidemiological control and prevention of E. bieneusi infections, from both the veterinary and human medical perspectives.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                parasite
                https://www.parasite-journal.org
                Parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1776-1042
                31 October 2019
                2019
                31 October 2019
                31 October 2019
                : 26
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2019/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Pathogenic Biology, Hainan Medical University, , Xueyuan Road 3, 571199 Haikou, Hainan, PR China,
                [2 ] Hainan Medical University-The University of Hong Kong Joint Laboratory of Tropical Infectious Diseases, Hainan Medical University, , 571199 Haikou, Hainan, PR China,
                [3 ] Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of Ministry of Education, Hainan Medical University, , 571199 Haikou, PR China,
                [4 ] Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Hainan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, , 571100 Haikou, PR China,
                [5 ] College of Animal Sciences, Tarim University, , 843300 Alar, Xinjiang, PR China,
                Author notes
                Article
                parasite190115
                10.1051/parasite/2019064
                © H-H. Zhou et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (journal page): http://www.parasite-journal.org/
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                Parasite 26, 62 (2019)
                2019
                2019
                2019

                Parasitology, Life sciences

                Goats, China, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Genotype, ITS region

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