Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Síndrome antifosfolípido: Utilidad de la ecocardiografía transesofágica Translated title: Antiphospholipid syndrome.: The use of transesophagic echocardiography

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      El síndrome antifosfolípido (SAF) es una alteración inmune que produce trombosis venosas y arteriales, accidente cerebrovascular, aborto recurrente, anemia hemolítica, trombopenia y un sinfín de manifestaciones de órgano. El SAF es una entidad asociada en ocasiones al lupus eritematoso sistémico pudiendo también ser detectado sin enfermedad subyacente de base. El trastorno es debido a la presencia de unas inmunoglobulinas (IgG, IgA, IgM o una combinación de ellas) que adoptan una configuración hexagonal cuando se incuban a 37º. En el SAP es relativamente frecuente encontrar lesiones cardiacas como endocarditis no verrugosa, lesiones valvulares (especialmente de la válvula mitral), enfermedad microvascular cardiaca y mayor riesgo de trombosis a este nivel, mixomas que pueden inducir una inflamación sistémica en relación a la producción de anticuerpos antifosfolípidos , trombos intracardiacos y cardiopatias congénitas. Presentamos el caso de una mujer con SAP asociado a comunicación interauricular que había debutado anteriormente con tromboembolismo pulmonar y accidente cerebrovascular y que pudo ser diagnosticada tras examen con ecografía transesofágica. Proponemos el examen con esta técnica en pacientes con SAP aunque la ecocardiografía con doppler sea normal. Así podremos descartar lesiones cardiacas que puedan además ser causa de fenómenos embolígenos.

      Translated abstract

      Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by the presence of arterial and venous thromboses, recurrent fetal death, cerebrovascular accidents, hemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and various other manifestations in different organs. APS is a clinical entity that can appear commonly alongside systemic lupus erithemathous on it can occur as a primary disease. The syndrome is defined by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in serum, a group of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA or an mixture of them) that adopt an hexagonal configuration when they are incubated at 37 ºC. In APS, it is rather common to find cardiac lesions such as non-verrucous endocarditis, valvular lesions (especially of the mitral valve), microvascular cardiac disease and more risk of thrombosis at this level, myxomas that could be the cause of a systemic inflammation in relation to the production of antiphospholipid antibodies, intracardiac thrombii and congenital heart disease. We present the case of a woman with APS associated with interauricular communication whose initial diagnosis were pulmonary thromboembolism and cerebrovascular stroke. We were able to diagnose the cardiac abnormality by the use of transesophagic echocardiography. We propose the use of this imaging technique for patients with APS even though the transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was found to be normal. In this way we will be able to rule out cardiac lesions which could also be the cause of embolic manifestations.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 25

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Repeated fetal losses associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: a collaborative randomized trial comparing prednisone with low-dose heparin treatment.

      We attempted to compare the use of low-dose heparin with a standard dose of 40 mg prednisone daily (both plus low-dose aspirin) for treatment of pregnant women with antiphospholipid antibody-associated recurrent fetal loss with respect to maternal and perinatal morbidity and efficacy in prevention of fetal death. A multicenter randomized trial included 20 patients. Generalizability of results from randomized patients was evaluated by means of additional data from 13 women refusing and 12 women ineligible for randomization. Data from study groups were compared with Fisher's exact test, and generalizability was evaluated with a chi 2 test for trend. Live birth rates were the same (75%) with either treatment, but "serious" maternal morbidity and the frequency of preterm delivery were significantly higher among women randomly assigned to prednisone (p = 0.02 vs p = 0.006). Preterm delivery among prednisone-treated women was usually associated with premature rupture of the membranes or preeclampsia. These results could be generalized to the other groups of women ascertained during the course of the study. Low-dose heparin should be preferred to prednisone when treatment is indicated for high-risk pregnant women with antiphospholipid antibodies.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        High prevalence of significant heart valve lesions in patients with the 'primary' antiphospholipid syndrome.

        A prospective echocardiographic study was carried out on 55 patients with the recently described 'primary' antiphospholipid syndrome derived from three university medical centres. The prevalence of valvular lesions in patients with this syndrome was 38% compared with 4% in a control group of 55 healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Mean age of patients with valve abnormalities was 42 +/- 12 years and of those without, 30 +/- 10 years (P < 0.05). One patient had a morphologic echocardiographic pattern suggestive of non-infective verrucous mitral endocarditis. Twenty patients had a two-dimensional or Doppler echocardiographic pattern of significant valvular dysfunction--either regurgitation or stenosis--without evidence of vegetations. Mitral and aortic regurgitation were the most common lesions in these patients. During follow-up of patients with valvular disease, haemodynamically significant clinical valve disease developed in four and surgery was required in one. Eleven patients had cerebrovascular occlusions. Thus, valvular heart disease, particularly affecting the mitral and aortic valves, is common in patients with the 'primary' antiphospholipid syndrome, especially in those over 40 years old.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Cardiac manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

          The antiphospholipid syndrome has been associated with multiple cardiac abnormalities. The earliest reports were of valvular disease, including verrucous endocarditis, as well as valvular thickening and insufficiency. Subsequently, antiphospholipid antibodies were implicated in coronary artery disease manifested by premature myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass graft occlusion. In addition, there have been rare reports of intracardiac thrombi and diffuse cardiomyopathy in association with antiphospholipid antibodies. In this review, we discuss the nature and prevalence of the cardiac manifestations of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome as well as some of the proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. We also provide examples from our own experience. The expanding spectrum of cardiac disease associated with antiphospholipid antibodies suggests an important role for these antibodies in certain types of cardiac pathology.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Hospital Universitario La Fe Spain
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            ami
            Anales de Medicina Interna
            An. Med. Interna (Madrid)
            Arán Ediciones, S. L. (Madrid )
            0212-7199
            October 2003
            : 20
            : 10
            : 40-41
            S0212-71992003001000008 10.4321/s0212-71992003001000008

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Spain
            Categories
            MEDICINE, GENERAL & INTERNAL

            Comments

            Comment on this article