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      Milk quality according to the daily range in farm production in the Mesoregion Central Mineira and Oeste of Minas Gerais regions, Brazil Translated title: Perfil da qualidade do leite de acordo com a faixa de produção diária da propriedade leiteira nas mesorregiões Central Mineira e do Oeste de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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          The objective of this work was to characterize milk production from the Central Mineira and Oeste Mesoregions regions in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, according to quality parameters such as somatic cell count, total bacteria count, and composition for specific production ranges. Average results for milk fat, protein, total and nonfat solids were compliant with Brazilian legal requirements (IN-62/2011) in all the production ranges selected. Average somatic cell counts (SCC) complied with the legal requirements of 600,000 cells/mL, except for the range with a daily production above 1,000 liters. However, average maximum values of 400,000 cells/mL are recommended for good milk quality. Total bacterial count was the most critical quality factor, with the highest values found in breeds with milk production above 500 liters per day.

          Translated abstract

          O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a produção de leite nas mesorregiões Central Mineira e do Oeste de Minas do estado de Minas Gerais, quanto à contagem de células somáticas, à contagem bacteriana total e à composição, em diferentes faixas de produção. Os teores de gordura, proteína, sólidos totais e extrato seco desengordurado apresentaram valores médios dentro do limite estabelecido pela Instrução Normativa n°62 (IN-62/2011), em todas as faixas específicas de produção estipuladas no presente trabalho. Os valores de contagem de células somáticas (CCS) também se mostraram dentro do limite legalmente estabelecido de 600.000 células/mL, exceto na faixa de produção acima de 1.000L/dia. Entretanto, valores abaixo de 400.000 células/mL são recomendados para um leite de boa qualidade. A contagem bacteriana total foi o fator de qualidade mais crítico. Os valores médios de contagem bacteriana ultrapassaram o limite atualmente preconizado, e rebanhos com volume diário acima de 500 litros por dia foram os que apresentaram maior número de resultados que não estão em conformidade com os padrões legais.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Potential to Alter the Content and Composition of Milk Fat Through Nutrition

          Nutritional manipulation of the rumen ecosystem provides a strategy to alter the content and composition of milk fat. Dietary fat supplements affect the content and composition of milk fat. The magnitude of changes is influenced by the degree of protection; as protection increases, the deleterious effects fatty acids on microbial activity decreases, and biohydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids is reduced. In addition, change is influenced by the transfer of dietary fat into milk, which is related to fatty acid composition, degree of ruminal metabolism, and efficiency of digestion. A cascade of metabolic events involving specific nutrients (e.g., trans fatty acids and cyclopropene acids) occurs that regulates the activity of key enzymes in pathways of endogenous fat synthesis within the mammary gland. When cattle are fed oilseeds (e.g., canola and cotton) with > 75% protection from biohydrogenation, the proportion of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids is changed, and the fat content of milk is increased. Human consumption of dairy products containing elevated proportions of C18 mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the content of cholesterol in plasma low density lipoproteins. These fat-modified dairy products are more susceptible to autoxidation, which can be controlled by including vitamin E in the diet of lactating cow. These products also have much less solid fat, which improves spreadability of butter. By protecting different oilseeds from ruminal metabolism, demands for energy can be satisfied while producing milk fat that can be designed for consumer and manufacturing requirements.
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            BENTLEY 2000 operator’s manual

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              Potential for broad applications of flow cytometry and fluorescence techniques in microbiological and somatic cell analyses of milk

              Monitoring the quality and safety of milk requires careful analysis of microbial and somatic cell loading. Our aim was to demonstrate proof of the principle that flow cytometry (FCM), coupled with fluorescence techniques for distinguishing between cell types, could potentially be employed in a wide variety of biological assays relevant to the dairy industry. To this end, we studied raw milk samples and ultraheat-treated milk, into which known numbers of bacteria or mouse cells were inoculated. For bacterial analyses, protein and lipids were removed, whereas only centrifugal lipid clearing was needed for somatic cell analyses. Cleared samples were stained with fluorescent dyes or with bacterial-specific fluorescent-labeled oligonucleotides and analyzed by FCM. A fluoresceinated peptide nucleic acid probe enabled efficient enumeration of bacteria in milk. Dual staining of samples with fluorescent dyes that indicate live (5-cyanol-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride, CTC or SYTO 9) or damaged cells (oxonol or propidium iodide, PI) enabled determination of viable bacteria in milk. Gram-positive and -negative bacteria were distinguished using hexidium iodide and SYTO 13 in dual staining of cleared milk samples. An FCM-based method gave a good correlation (r=0.88) with total microscopic counts of somatic cells in raw milk. The FCM method also correlated strongly (r=0.98) with the standard Fossomatic method for somatic cell detection. We conclude that FCM, coupled with fluorescence staining techniques, offers potentially diverse and rapid approaches to biological safety and quality testing in the dairy industry. Potential application of flow cytometers to a broad range of assays for milk biological quality should make this instrumentation more attractive and cost effective to the dairy industry and indeed the broader food industry.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
                Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
                Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária (Belo Horizonte )
                August 2013
                : 65
                : 4
                : 1239-1246
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Brazil
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