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      Contaminación biológica con heces caninas y parásitos intestinales en espacios públicos urbanos en dos ciudades de la Provincia del Chubut: Patagonia Argentina Translated title: BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION WITH CANINE FAECES AND INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PUBLIC PARKS IN TWO CITIES OF CHUBUT PROVINCE, PATAGONIA ARGENTINA

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          Abstract

          Se realizó un estudio longitudinal durante un año, para determinar la presencia de parásitos intestinales en heces caninas y su relación con las condiciones climáticas. 481 muestras de heces fueron recolectadas en 13 plazas de dos ciudades de la Provincia del Chubut, Patagonia Argentina. Las muestras fueron analizadas por medio de los métodos de Telemann y Willis. Los datos meteorológicos se registraron diariamente. La frecuencia de aparición de muestras positivas para parásitos intestinales estuvo comprendida entre el 34,9% y 51,2% durante el periodo estudiado, resultando la misma independiente de la estación climática (p > 0,05). Se registró un predominio de helmintos sobre protozoos durante las cuatro estaciones. La frecuencia de aparición de Entamoeba spp. y Nematoda resultó dependiente de la estación estudiada (p < 0,05). El hallazgo de huevos de T. canis varió de un 12,7% en invierno a un 20,9% en primavera. Se detectaron patógenos para el humanos como T. canis, Taenia spp., Uncinaria spp. y Entamoeba spp. Se reportan por primera vez para ésta región Spirocerca spp. y Capillaria spp.

          Translated abstract

          A longitudinal study to determine the presence of intestinal parasites in canine faeces and their relationship with seasonal weather conditions during a year was carried out. 481 fecal canine deposits were collected from 13 public parks in two cities of Chubut Province, Patagonia Argentina. Stools were analyzed by means of Telemann and Willis methods. Weather conditions were daily registered from local stations. The frequency of positive canine faeces to intestinal parasites was found between 34,9% and 51,2% over the studied period and was season independent (p > 0.05). A predominance of helminths over protozoa was detected in all seasons. Frequency of Entamoeba spp. and Nematoda was seasonal dependent (p < 0.05). The finding of Toxocara canis eggs varied from 12,7% in winter to 20,9% in spring. Pathogens to humans such as T. canis, Taenia spp., Uncinaria spp. and Entamoeba spp. were found. Spirocerca spp. and Capillaria spp. have been reported for the first time for this region.

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          Most cited references 20

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          New insights into human cryptosporidiosis.

           Douglas Clark (1999)
          Cryptosporidium parvum is an important cause of diarrhea worldwide. Cryptosporidium causes a potentially life-threatening disease in people with AIDS and contributes significantly to morbidity among children in developing countries. In immunocompetent adults, Cryptosporidium is often associated with waterborne outbreaks of acute diarrheal illness. Recent studies with human volunteers have indicated that Cryptosporidium is highly infectious. Diagnosis of infection with this parasite has relied on identification of acid-fast oocysts in stool; however, new immunoassays or PCR-based assays may increase the sensitivity of detection. Although the mechanism by which Cryptosporidium causes diarrhea is still poorly understood, the parasite and the immune response to it probably combine to impair absorption and enhance secretion within the intestinal tract. Important genetic studies suggest that humans can be infected by at least two genetically distinct types of Cryptosporidium, which may vary in virulence. This may, in part, explain the clinical variability seen in patients with cryptosporidiosis.
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            Giardiasis.

             M S Wolfe (1992)
            Giardiasis is one of the most common pathogenic intestinal protozoal infections worldwide. Giardia lamblia is the most frequently identified etiologic agent in outbreaks associated with the ingestion of surface water, often due to ineffective filtration or pretreatment. In addition to humans, other sources of infection include beavers, perhaps muskrats, and possibly domestic animals. A low infecting dose (10 to 25 cysts) is reported to be sufficient to produce human infection. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to a transient or persistent acute stage, with steatorrhea, intermittent diarrhea, and weight loss, or to a subacute or chronic stage that can mimic gallbladder or peptic ulcer disease. Diagnosis is usually based on repeated stool examinations but examination of duodenal fluid or biopsy material may also be necessary. Enzyme immunoassay or indirect immunofluorescence methods for direct detection of antigen or whole organisms in clinical specimens have also been developed. These tests are reported to be more sensitive than routine stool examination. Demonstration of serum immunoglobulin M and G antibodies may help differentiate recent from past infection or help detect recurrence in individuals who have been treated previously. Serum immunoglobulin A levels may be a useful indicator of exposure in waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea. Drugs available for treatment within the United States include metronidazole, quinacrine hydrochloride, and furazolidone.
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              Release and survival of Echinococcus eggs in different environments in Turkana, and their possible impact on the incidence of hydatidosis in man and livestock.

              In Turkana, Kenya, a prevalence of hydatidosis of nearly 10% has been recorded among the pastoralists yet their livestock have a much lower prevalence of the disease. The present study investigated the release from dogs and subsequent survival of Echinococcus eggs in Turkana huts, water-holes and in the semi-arid environment. The results were compared with the survival of eggs of Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata. The study was repeated under the cooler and moister conditions found in Maasailand where livestock have a greater incidence of hydatid disease than in Turkana but where the incidence in man is ten times lower. The average number of Echinococcus eggs per proglottid is 823. Nine percent of these remain in proglottids 15 minutes after release from a dog and the released eggs lose their viability in less than two, 48 and 300 hours in the sun, huts and water in Turkana respectively: the major influencing factor being temperature. The greater survival of eggs in the houses, coupled with the fact that dogs congregate for most of the day in the small houses facilitating a close man:dog contact, provide ideal conditions for the transmission of the parasite to man. The hostile environmental conditions and lack of contact between dogs and livestock contributes to the lower infection rate in livestock. Conversely in Maasailand, Echinococcus eggs survive in the environment for longer than three weeks and in addition, dogs are used for herding. This partly explains the higher infection rate among Maasai livestock but the low human infection rate remains arcane and requires further study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                parasitol
                Parasitología latinoamericana
                Parasitol. latinoam.
                Sociedad Chilena de Parasitología (Santiago )
                0717-7712
                July 2003
                : 58
                : 3-4
                : 131-135
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco Argentina
                [2 ] Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco Argentina
                [3 ] Universidad Nacional de La Plata Argentina
                Article
                S0717-77122003000300008
                10.4067/S0717-77122003000300008
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                PARASITOLOGY
                PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

                Parasitology, Public health

                Contamination, Canine faeces, Intestinal parasites, Argentine

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