Background: Population growth in the African region is set to outpace the rate of decline in smoking prevalence, leading to a projected increase in the total number of smokers. As most tobacco users initiate during their adolescent years, tobacco prevention strategies targeting youth will be particularly important. Methods: This study estimated the impact of cigarette prices on youth cigarette smoking and tobacco use initiation in Ghana and Nigeria using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data. First, we used cross-section data and logit models to estimate the effects of prices on youth cigarette smoking. Second, we created pseudo longitudinal data and used continuous-time hazard models to evaluate the impact of cigarette prices on tobacco use initiation. Results: We found that higher cigarette prices decreased both 30-day cigarette smoking and tobacco use onset significantly in both Ghana and Nigeria. Additionally, the price elasticity of cigarette smoking and tobacco use initiation ranged from −0.44 to −1.13, and −1.04 to −3.66, respectively. Conclusions: As one of the first studies on youth tobacco consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa, this study strongly suggests that policies that increase real cigarette prices can lower both cigarette smoking and tobacco use initiation among youth in Ghana and Nigeria.