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      Parasitic diseases of equids in Iran (1931–2020): a literature review

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          Abstract

          Parasitic infections can cause many respiratory, digestive and other diseases and contribute to some performance conditions in equids. However, knowledge on the biodiversity of parasites of equids in Iran is still limited. The present review covers all the information about parasitic diseases of horses, donkeys, mules and wild asses in Iran published as articles in Iranian and international journals, dissertations and congress papers from 1931 to July 2020. Parasites so far described in Iranian equids include species of 9 genera of the Protozoa ( Trypanosoma, Giardia, Eimeria, Klossiella, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, Neospora, Theileria and Babesia), 50 helminth species from the digestive system (i.e., 2 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 37 nematodes) and from other organs (i.e., Schistosoma turkestanica, Echinococcus granulosus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Parafilaria multipapillosa, Setaria equina and 3 Onchocerca spp.). Furthermore, 16 species of hard ticks, 3 mite species causing mange, 2 lice species, and larvae of 4 Gastrophilus species and Hippobosca equina have been reported from equids in Iran. Archeoparasitological findings in coprolites of equids include Fasciola hepatica, Oxyuris equi, Anoplocephala spp . and intestinal strongyles. Parasitic diseases are important issues in terms of animal welfare, economics and public health; however, parasites and parasitic diseases of equines have not received adequate attention compared with ruminants and camels in Iran. The present review highlights the knowledge gaps related to equines about the presence, species, genotypes and subtypes of Neospora hughesi, Sarcocystis spp., Trichinella spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis and microsporidia. Identification of ticks vectoring pathogenic parasites, bacteria and viruses has received little attention, too. The efficacy of common horse wormers also needs to be evaluated systematically.

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          Zoonotic potential of Giardia.

          Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis) is a common intestinal parasite of humans and mammals worldwide. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within G. duodenalis. To date eight major genetic groups (assemblages) have been identified, two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining six (C to H) are host-specific and do not infect humans. Sequence-based surveys of single loci have identified a number of genetic variants (genotypes) within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Multi-locus typing data, however, has shown that in most cases, animals do not share identical multi-locus types with humans. Furthermore, interpretation of genotyping data is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles that generate "double peaks" in sequencing files from PCR products, and by the potential exchange of genetic material among isolates, which may account for the non-concordance in the assignment of isolates to specific assemblages. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetics of this parasite is required to allow the design of more sensitive and variable subtyping tools, that in turn may help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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            Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China: prospects and challenges for the 21st century.

            Schistosomiasis japonica is a serious communicable disease and a major disease risk for more than 30 million people living in the tropical and subtropical zones of China. Infection remains a major public health concern despite 45 years of intensive control efforts. It is estimated that 865,000 people and 100,250 bovines are today infected in the provinces where the disease is endemic, and its transmission continues. Unlike the other schistosome species known to infect humans, the oriental schistosome, Schistosoma japonicum, is a true zoonotic organism, with a range of mammalian reservoirs, making control efforts extremely difficult. Clinical features of schistosomiasis range from fever, headache, and lethargy to severe fibro-obstructive pathology leading to portal hypertension, ascites, and hepatosplenomegaly, which can cause premature death. Infected children are stunted and have cognitive defects impairing memory and learning ability. Current control programs are heavily based on community chemotherapy with a single dose of the drug praziquantel, but vaccines (for use in bovines and humans) in combination with other control strategies are needed to make elimination of the disease possible. In this article, we provide an overview of the biology, epidemiology, clinical features, and prospects for control of oriental schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China.
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              Ecology and Life Cycle Patterns of Echinococcus Species.

              The genus Echinococcus is composed of eight generally recognized species and one genotypic cluster (Echinococcus canadensis cluster) that may in future be resolved into one to three species. For each species, we review existing information on transmission routes and life cycles in different geographical contexts and - where available - include basic biological information of parasites and hosts (e.g., susceptibility of host species). While some Echinococcus spp. are transmitted in life cycles that involve predominantly domestic animals (e.g., dog - livestock cycles), others are wildlife parasites that do or do not interact with domestic transmission. In many cases, life cycle patterns of the same parasite species differ according to geography. Simple life cycles contrast with transmission patterns that are highly complex, involving multihost systems that may include both domestic and wild mammals. Wildlife transmission may be primary or secondary, i.e., resulting from spillovers from domestic animals. For most of the species and regions, existing information does not yet permit a conclusive description of transmission systems. Such data, however, would be highly relevant, e.g., for anticipation of geographical changes of the presence and frequency of these parasites in a warming world, or for initiating evidence-based control strategies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                alireza.sazmand@basu.ac.ir
                aliasghar.bahari@basu.ac.ir
                sarehsareh1997@gmail.com
                domenico.otranto@uniba.it
                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-3305
                19 November 2020
                19 November 2020
                2020
                : 13
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.411807.b, ISNI 0000 0000 9828 9578, Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, , Bu-Ali Sina University, ; Hamedan, 6517658978 Iran
                [2 ]GRID grid.411807.b, ISNI 0000 0000 9828 9578, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, , Bu-Ali Sina University, ; Hamedan, 6517658978 Iran
                [3 ]GRID grid.7644.1, ISNI 0000 0001 0120 3326, Department of Veterinary Medicine, , University of Bari Aldo Moro, ; Str. prov. per Casamassima km 3, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy
                Article
                4472
                10.1186/s13071-020-04472-w
                7676409
                33213507
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

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                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Parasitology

                donkey, equus, horse, iran, mule, parasite, review

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