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      Polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene promoter, circulating TNF-alpha level, and cardiovascular risk factor for ischemic stroke

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          Abstract

          Background

          Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is one of the most typical pro-inflammatory cytokines with both beneficial and destructive properties for the central nervous system. Increasing evidences have demonstrated the important role of TNF-α in the development of ischemic stroke, but studies examining the possible association with stroke or direct functional effects of polymorphisms in TNF-α have been contradictory.

          Findings

          In this study, a 2-kb length of the proximal promoter of the TNF-α was screened and four polymorphisms were investigated in the case–control study. Our data confirmed the association between -308G/A variant with stroke in 1,388 stroke patients and 1,027 controls and replicated in an independent population of 961 stroke patients and 821 controls (odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.02 to 1.77 and OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.09 to 2.23, respectively). To reconcile the association between polymorphisms and stroke and to give a comprehensive picture of the genetic architecture of this important gene, we performed a meta-analysis of 15 published studies in an Asian population. Our results demonstrated an association between rs1800629 and ischemic stroke (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.69). Another meta-analysis results of 14 studies demonstrated that ischemic stroke patients have higher serum TNF-α level than the control subjects (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.85 to 2.81). In vitro evaluation of potential interaction between variants of the TNF-α gene (−308G/A, -857C/T, and -1031T/C) demonstrated that these three polymorphisms could interact together to determine the overall activity of the TNF-α gene.

          Conclusions

          These findings strongly implicate the involvement of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of stroke.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Effects of a polymorphism in the human tumor necrosis factor alpha promoter on transcriptional activation.

          Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) is a potent immunomodulator and proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and infectious diseases. For example, plasma levels of TNF alpha are positively correlated with severity and mortality in malaria and leishmaniasis. We have previously described a polymorphism at -308 in the TNF alpha promoter and shown that the rare allele, TNF2, lies on the extended haplotype HLA-A1-B8-DR3-DQ2, which is associated with autoimmunity and high TNF alpha production. Homozygosity for TNF2 carries a sevenfold increased risk of death from cerebral malaria. Here we demonstrate, with reporter genes under the control of the two allelic TNF promoters, that TNF2 is a much stronger transcriptional activator than the common allele (TNF1) in a human B cell line. Footprint analysis using DNase I and B cell nuclear extract showed the generation of a hypersensitive site at -308 and an adjacent area of protection. There was no difference in affinity of the DNA-binding protein(s) between the two alleles. These results show that this polymorphism has direct effects on TNF alpha gene regulation and may be responsible for the association of TNF2 with high TNF alpha phenotype and more severe disease in infections such as malaria and leishmaniasis.
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            Inflammatory markers and onset of cardiovascular events: results from the Health ABC study.

            Inflammation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of several inflammatory markers on the incidence of cardiovascular events in well-functioning older persons. The subjects were 2225 participants 70 to 79 years old, without baseline cardiovascular disease, who were enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Incident coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and congestive heart failure (CHF) events were detected during an average follow-up of 3.6 years. Blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were assessed. After adjustment for potential confounders, IL-6 was significantly associated with all outcomes (CHD events, per IL-6 SD increase: RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.48; stroke events, per IL-6 SD increase: RR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.86; CHF events, per IL-6 SD increase: RR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.12). TNF-alpha showed significant associations with CHD (per TNF-alpha SD increase: RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.43) and CHF (per TNF-alpha SD increase: RR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.95) events. CRP was significantly associated with CHF events (per CRP SD increase: RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.78). A composite summary indicator of inflammation showed a strong association with incident cardiovascular events, with an especially high risk if all 3 inflammatory markers were in the highest tertile. Findings suggest that inflammatory markers are independent predictors of cardiovascular events in older persons.
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              Genome-wide association study identifies a variant in HDAC9 associated with large vessel ischemic stroke

              Genetic factors have been implicated in stroke risk but few replicated associations have been reported. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in ischemic stroke and its subtypes in 3,548 cases and 5,972 controls, all of European ancestry. Replication of potential signals was performed in 5,859 cases and 6,281 controls. We replicated reported associations between variants close to PITX2 and ZFHX3 with cardioembolic stroke, and a 9p21 locus with large vessel stroke. We identified a novel association for a SNP within the histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) gene on chromosome 7p21.1 which was associated with large vessel stroke including additional replication in a further 735 cases and 28583 controls (rs11984041, combined P = 1.87×10−11, OR=1.42 (95% CI) 1.28-1.57). All four loci exhibit evidence for heterogeneity of effect across the stroke subtypes, with some, and possibly all, affecting risk for only one subtype. This suggests differing genetic architectures for different stroke subtypes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Neuroinflammation
                J Neuroinflammation
                Journal of Neuroinflammation
                BioMed Central
                1742-2094
                2012
                10 October 2012
                : 9
                : 235
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Departments of Internal Medicine and Institute of Hypertension, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 1095# Jiefang Ave, Wuhan, 430030, China
                [2 ]Fuwai Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
                Article
                1742-2094-9-235
                10.1186/1742-2094-9-235
                3521196
                23050663
                Copyright ©2012 Cui et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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