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      Effectiveness of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using unilateral endobronchial valve: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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          Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) can be suggested as an alternative for surgical lung volume reduction surgery for severe emphysema patients. This article intends to evaluate by systematic review the safety and effectiveness of BLVR using a one-way endobronchial valve.


          A systematic search of electronic databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, as well as eight domestic databases up to December 2013, was performed. Two reviewers independently screened all references according to selection criteria. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criterion was used to assess quality of literature. Data from randomized controlled trials were combined and meta-analysis was performed.


          This review included 15 studies. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1) improved in the intervention group compared with the control group (mean difference [MD]=6.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.31–10.11). Six-minute walking distance (MD=15.66, 95% CI: 1.69–29.64) and cycle workload (MD=4.43, 95% CI: 1.80–7.07) also improved. In addition, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score decreased (MD=4.29, 95% CI: −6.87 to −1.71) in the intervention group. In a subgroup analysis of patients with complete fissure, the FEV 1 change from baseline was higher in the BLVR group than in the control group for both 6 months (MD=15.28, P<0.001) and 12 months (MD=17.65, P<0.001), whereas for patients with incomplete fissure, FEV 1 and 6-minute walking distance showed no change. One-year follow-up randomized controlled trials reported deaths, although the cause of death was not related to BLVR. Respiratory failure and pneumothorax incidence rates were relatively higher in the BLVR group, but the difference was not significant.


          BLVR may be an effective and safe procedure for the treatment of severe COPD patients with emphysema, based on existing studies.

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          Most cited references 26

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          A randomized study of endobronchial valves for advanced emphysema.

          Endobronchial valves that allow air to escape from a pulmonary lobe but not enter it can induce a reduction in lobar volume that may thereby improve lung function and exercise tolerance in patients with pulmonary hyperinflation related to advanced emphysema. We compared the safety and efficacy of endobronchial-valve therapy in patients with heterogeneous emphysema versus standard medical care. Efficacy end points were percent changes in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the 6-minute walk test on intention-to-treat analysis. We assessed safety on the basis of the rate of a composite of six major complications. Of 321 enrolled patients, 220 were randomly assigned to receive endobronchial valves (EBV group) and 101 to receive standard medical care (control group). At 6 months, there was an increase of 4.3% in the FEV1 in the EBV group (an increase of 1.0 percentage point in the percent of the predicted value), as compared with a decrease of 2.5% in the control group (a decrease of 0.9 percentage point in the percent of the predicted value). Thus, there was a mean between-group difference of 6.8% in the FEV1 (P=0.005). Roughly similar between-group differences were observed for the 6-minute walk test. At 12 months, the rate of the complications composite was 10.3% in the EBV group versus 4.6% in the control group (P=0.17). At 90 days, in the EBV group, as compared with the control group, there were increased rates of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring hospitalization (7.9% vs. 1.1%, P=0.03) and hemoptysis (6.1% vs. 0%, P=0.01). The rate of pneumonia in the target lobe in the EBV group was 4.2% at 12 months. Greater radiographic evidence of emphysema heterogeneity and fissure completeness was associated with an enhanced response to treatment. Endobronchial-valve treatment for advanced heterogeneous emphysema induced modest improvements in lung function, exercise tolerance, and symptoms at the cost of more frequent exacerbations of COPD, pneumonia, and hemoptysis after implantation. (Funded by Pulmonx; number, NCT00129584.)
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            Efficacy predictors of lung volume reduction with Zephyr valves in a European cohort.

            The Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT) was a multi-centre, prospective, randomised, controlled trial conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of unilateral endobronchial valve (EBV) treatment. The purpose of this analysis was to assess outcomes in the previously unreported European VENT study cohort. Patients with advanced emphysema were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive Zephyr® (Pulmonx Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA) EBV treatment (n = 111) or medical management (n = 60). At 6 months, EBV patients demonstrated a significant improvement compared with the controls for mean ± SD change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (7 ± 20% versus 0.5 ± 19%; p = 0.067), cycle ergometry (2 ± 14 W versus -3 ± 10 W; p = 0.04) and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (-5 ± 14 points versus 0.3 ± 13 points; p = 0.047). At 12 months, the magnitude of the difference between groups for change from baseline was of similar magnitude to the differences seen at 6 months. Rates for complications did not differ significantly. EBV patients with computed tomography (CT) scans suggestive of complete fissure and lobar occlusion had a mean ± SD lobar volume reduction of -80 ± 30% and >50% met minimal clinical difference thresholds. The degree of emphysema heterogeneity did not preclude excellent outcomes. Unilateral lobar volume reduction using EBV treatment is safe and superior clinical results correlated with CT suggestive of complete fissures and successful lobar occlusion. Emphysema heterogeneity was not critical for determining positive outcomes.
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              Effect of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction on dynamic hyperinflation and exercise in emphysema.

              Endobronchial valve placement improves pulmonary function in some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but its effects on exercise physiology have not been investigated. In 19 patients with a mean (SD) FEV(1) of 28.4 (11.9)% predicted, studied before and 4 weeks after unilateral valve insertion, functional residual capacity decreased from 7.1 (1.5) to 6.6 (1.7) L (p = 0.03) and diffusing capacity rose from 3.3 (1.1) to 3.7 (1.2) mmol . minute(-1) . kPa(-1) (p = 0.03). Cycle endurance time at 80% of peak workload increased from 227 (129) to 315 (195) seconds (p = 0.03). This was associated with a reduction in end-expiratory lung volume at peak exercise from 7.6 (1.6) to 7.2 (1.7) L (p = 0.03). Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, a model containing changes in transfer factor and resting inspiratory capacity explained 81% of the variation in change in exercise time (p < 0.0001). The same variables were retained if the five patients with radiologic atelectasis were excluded from analysis. In a subgroup of patients in whom invasive measurements were performed, improvement in exercise capacity was associated with a reduction in lung compliance (r(2) = 0.43; p = 0.03) and isotime esophageal pressure-time product (r(2) = 0.47; p = 0.03). Endobronchial valve placement can improve lung volumes and gas transfer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and prolong exercise time by reducing dynamic hyperinflation.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                31 March 2015
                : 10
                : 703-710
                [1 ]National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea
                [4 ]Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [5 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Young Sam Kim, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-Ro, Seodaemun Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 2 2228 1971, Fax +82 2 393 6884, Email ysamkim@
                © 2015 Choi et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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