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      Comparison of Biological Properties and Clinical Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from the Mesoderm and Ectoderm


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          Since the discovery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the 1970s, they have been widely used in the treatment of a variety of diseases because of their wide sources, strong differentiation potential, rapid expansion in vitro, low immunogenicity, and so on. At present, most of the related research is on mesoderm-derived MSCs (M-MSCs) such as bone marrow MSCs and adipose-derived MSCs. As a type of MSC, ectoderm-derived MSCs (E-MSCs) have a stronger potential for self-renewal, multidirectional differentiation, and immunomodulation and have more advantages than M-MSCs in some specific conditions. This paper analyzes the relevant research development of E-MSCs compared with that of M-MSCs; summarizes the extraction, discrimination and culture, biological characteristics, and clinical application of E-MSCs; and discusses the application prospects of E-MSCs. This summary provides a theoretical basis for the better application of MSCs from both ectoderm and mesoderm in the future.

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          Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation.

          Macrophages display remarkable plasticity and can change their physiology in response to environmental cues. These changes can give rise to different populations of cells with distinct functions. In this Review we suggest a new grouping of macrophage populations based on three different homeostatic activities - host defence, wound healing and immune regulation. We propose that similarly to primary colours, these three basic macrophage populations can blend into various other 'shades' of activation. We characterize each population and provide examples of macrophages from specific disease states that have the characteristics of one or more of these populations.
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            Macrophages in Tissue Repair, Regeneration, and Fibrosis.

            Inflammatory monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages are key regulators of tissue repair, regeneration, and fibrosis. After tissue injury, monocytes and macrophages undergo marked phenotypic and functional changes to play critical roles during the initiation, maintenance, and resolution phases of tissue repair. Disturbances in macrophage function can lead to aberrant repair, such that uncontrolled production of inflammatory mediators and growth factors, deficient generation of anti-inflammatory macrophages, or failed communication between macrophages and epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stem or tissue progenitor cells all contribute to a state of persistent injury, and this could lead to the development of pathological fibrosis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that instruct macrophages to adopt pro-inflammatory, pro-wound-healing, pro-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, pro-resolving, and tissue-regenerating phenotypes after injury, and we highlight how some of these mechanisms and macrophage activation states could be exploited therapeutically.
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              Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies.

              Future cell-based therapies such as tissue engineering will benefit from a source of autologous pluripotent stem cells. For mesodermal tissue engineering, one such source of cells is the bone marrow stroma. The bone marrow compartment contains several cell populations, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are capable of differentiating into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic cells. However, autologous bone marrow procurement has potential limitations. An alternate source of autologous adult stem cells that is obtainable in large quantities, under local anesthesia, with minimal discomfort would be advantageous. In this study, we determined if a population of stem cells could be isolated from human adipose tissue. Human adipose tissue, obtained by suction-assisted lipectomy (i.e., liposuction), was processed to obtain a fibroblast-like population of cells or a processed lipoaspirate (PLA). These PLA cells can be maintained in vitro for extended periods with stable population doubling and low levels of senescence. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry show that the majority of PLA cells are of mesodermal or mesenchymal origin with low levels of contaminating pericytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Finally, PLA cells differentiate in vitro into adipogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic, and osteogenic cells in the presence of lineage-specific induction factors. In conclusion, the data support the hypothesis that a human lipoaspirate contains multipotent cells and may represent an alternative stem cell source to bone marrow-derived MSCs.

                Author and article information

                Stem Cells Int
                Stem Cells Int
                Stem Cells International
                10 June 2023
                : 2023
                : 4547875
                1Medical School of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100853, China
                2Department of Orthodontics, The First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
                3Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Stefan Arnhold

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Zhenning Wang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 10 May 2022
                : 4 May 2023
                : 23 May 2023
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 82170986
                Review Article

                Molecular medicine
                Molecular medicine


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