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      A comprehensive analysis of association of medical history with airflow limitation: a cross-sectional study

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          Multiple comorbidity is common and increases the complexity of the presentation of patients with COPD. This study was a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between a medical history of 22 disease categories and the presence of airflow limitation (AL) without any history of asthma or bronchiectasis, compatible with COPD.


          A total of 11,898 Japanese patients aged ≥40 years, who underwent spirometry tests, comprising patients with AL (n=2,309) or without AL (n=9,589), were evaluated. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship between the presence of AL and each disease. The model was adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and pack-years of smoking.


          In multivariate analysis, female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52–0.67), age (OR for 10-year age increase: 1.99; CI: 1.90–2.09), BMI (OR for 1 kg/m 2 increase: 0.96; CI: 0.95–0.98) and smoking history (<15 vs 15–24, 25–49 and ≥50 pack-years; OR: 1.78, 2.6 and 3.69, respectively; CI: 1.46–2.17, 2.24–3.0 and 3.15–4.33, respectively) were significantly associated with the presence of AL. In addition, a history of tuberculosis (OR: 1.72; CI: 1.39–2.11), primary lung cancer (OR: 1.50; CI: 1.28–1.77), myocardial infarction (OR: 1.22; CI: 1.01–1.48), heart failure (OR: 1.53; CI: 1.29–1.81), arrhythmia (OR: 1.19; CI: 1.03–1.38) or heart valve disorder (OR: 1.33; CI: 1.14–1.56) was significantly associated with the presence of AL, after adjustment.


          This study suggests that a history of heart disease leading to abnormal cardiac function may be associated with AL and that the presence of certain types of heart disease provides a rationale to assess lung status and look for respiratory impairment, including COPD.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990–2020: Global Burden of Disease Study

          Plausible projections of future mortality and disability are a useful aid in decisions on priorities for health research, capital investment, and training. Rates and patterns of ill health are determined by factors such as socioeconomic development, educational attainment, technological developments, and their dispersion among populations, as well as exposure to hazards such as tobacco. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD), we developed three scenarios of future mortality and disability for different age-sex groups, causes, and regions. We used the most important disease and injury trends since 1950 in nine cause-of-death clusters. Regression equations for mortality rates for each cluster by region were developed from gross domestic product per person (in international dollars), average number of years of education, time (in years, as a surrogate for technological change), and smoking intensity, which shows the cumulative effects based on data for 47 countries in 1950-90. Optimistic, pessimistic, and baseline projections of the independent variables were made. We related mortality from detailed causes to mortality from a cause cluster to project more detailed causes. Based on projected numbers of deaths by cause, years of life lived with disability (YLDs) were projected from different relation models of YLDs to years of life lost (YLLs). Population projections were prepared from World Bank projections of fertility and the projected mortality rates. Life expectancy at birth for women was projected to increase in all three scenarios; in established market economies to about 90 years by 2020. Far smaller gains in male life expectancy were projected than in females; in formerly socialist economies of Europe, male life expectancy may not increase at all. Worldwide mortality from communicable maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders was expected to decline in the baseline scenario from 17.2 million deaths in 1990 to 10.3 million in 2020. We projected that non-communicable disease mortality will increase from 28.1 million deaths in 1990 to 49.7 million in 2020. Deaths from injury may increase from 5.1 million to 8.4 million. Leading causes of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) predicted by the baseline model were (in descending order): ischaemic heart disease, unipolar major depression, road-traffic accidents, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, war injuries, diarrhoeal diseases, and HIV. Tobacco-attributable mortality is projected to increase from 3.0 million deaths in 1990 to 8.4 million deaths in 2020. Health trends in the next 25 years will be determined mainly by the ageing of the world's population, the decline in age-specific mortality rates from communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders, the spread of HIV, and the increase in tobacco-related mortality and disability. Projections, by their nature, are highly uncertain, but we found some robust results with implications for health policy.
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            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

            Summary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by progressive airflow obstruction that is only partly reversible, inflammation in the airways, and systemic effects or comorbities. The main cause is smoking tobacco, but other factors have been identified. Several pathobiological processes interact on a complex background of genetic determinants, lung growth, and environmental stimuli. The disease is further aggravated by exacerbations, particularly in patients with severe disease, up to 78% of which are due to bacterial infections, viral infections, or both. Comorbidities include ischaemic heart disease, diabetes, and lung cancer. Bronchodilators constitute the mainstay of treatment: β2 agonists and long-acting anticholinergic agents are frequently used (the former often with inhaled corticosteroids). Besides improving symptoms, these treatments are also thought to lead to some degree of disease modification. Future research should be directed towards the development of agents that notably affect the course of disease.
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              Prevalence and outcomes of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease in COPD.

              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with important chronic comorbid diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension. The present study analysed data from 20,296 subjects aged > or =45 yrs at baseline in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). The sample was stratified based on baseline lung function data, according to modified Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. Comorbid disease at baseline and death and hospitalisations over a 5-yr follow-up were then searched for. Lung function impairment was found to be associated with more comorbid disease. In logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, body mass index and education, subjects with GOLD stage 3 or 4 COPD had a higher prevalence of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.9), hypertension (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.0). Comorbid disease was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality that was worse in people with impaired lung function. Lung function impairment is associated with a higher risk of comorbid disease, which contributes to a higher risk of adverse outcomes of mortality and hospitalisations.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                08 August 2017
                : 12
                : 2363-2371
                [1 ]Division of Genomic Epidemiology and Clinical Trials, Clinical Trials Research Center
                [2 ]Division of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences
                [3 ]Division of Companion Diagnostics
                [4 ]Division of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yasuo Takahashi, Division of Genomic Epidemiology and Clinical Trials, Clinical Trials Research Center, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-Kami Machi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan, Tel +81 3 3972 8111 ext 2770, Fax +81 3 5917 4670, Email takahashi.yasuo@
                © 2017 Nishida et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                heart valve disorder, airflow limitation, arrhythmia, chronic heart disease, copd


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