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      Understanding the population consequences of disturbance


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          Managing the nonlethal effects of disturbance on wildlife populations has been a long‐term goal for decision makers, managers, and ecologists, and assessment of these effects is currently required by European Union and United States legislation. However, robust assessment of these effects is challenging. The management of human activities that have nonlethal effects on wildlife is a specific example of a fundamental ecological problem: how to understand the population‐level consequences of changes in the behavior or physiology of individual animals that are caused by external stressors. In this study, we review recent applications of a conceptual framework for assessing and predicting these consequences for marine mammal populations. We explore the range of models that can be used to formalize the approach and we identify critical research gaps. We also provide a decision tree that can be used to select the most appropriate model structure given the available data. Synthesis and applications: The implementation of this framework has moved the focus of discussion of the management of nonlethal disturbances on marine mammal populations away from a rhetorical debate about defining negligible impact and toward a quantitative understanding of long‐term population‐level effects. Here we demonstrate the framework's general applicability to other marine and terrestrial systems and show how it can support integrated modeling of the proximate and ultimate mechanisms that regulate trait‐mediated, indirect interactions in ecological communities, that is, the nonconsumptive effects of a predator or stressor on a species' behavior, physiology, or life history.

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          Most cited references112

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          Nonlethal Effects in the Ecology of Predator-Prey Interactions

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            Trophic cascades: the primacy of trait-mediated indirect interactions

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              Conservation physiology.

              Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is important to understand the physiological responses of organisms to their changed environment. New physiological techniques can enable a rapid assessment of the causes of conservation problems and the consequences of conservation actions.

                Author and article information

                Ecol Evol
                Ecol Evol
                Ecology and Evolution
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                12 September 2018
                October 2018
                : 8
                : 19 ( doiID: 10.1002/ece3.2018.8.issue-19 )
                : 9934-9946
                [ 1 ] Department of Mathematics and Statistics Washington State University Vancouver Washington
                [ 2 ] School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences University College Cork Cork Ireland
                [ 3 ] SMRU Consulting New Technology Centre St Andrews UK
                [ 4 ] Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of California Santa Cruz California
                [ 5 ] Department of Environmental Science and Policy University of California Davis California
                [ 6 ] Department of Fish, Wildlife and Conservation Biology Colorado State University Fort Collins Colorado
                [ 7 ] Anderson‐Cabot Center for Ocean Life New England Aquarium Boston Massachusetts
                [ 8 ] School of Biological Sciences University of Aberdeen Aberdeen UK
                [ 9 ] Naval Undersea Warfare Center Newport Rhode Island
                [ 10 ] Duke University Durham North Carolina
                [ 11 ] Centre for Research into Ecological and Environmental Modelling University of St Andrews St Andrews UK
                [ 12 ] Institute of Marine Sciences University of California Santa Cruz California
                [ 13 ] Marine Mammal Commission Bethesda Maryland
                [ 14 ] Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute School of Biology University of St Andrews St Andrews UK
                [ 15 ] Office of Naval Research Marine Mammal & Biology Program Arlington Virginia
                [ 16 ] Chicago Zoological Society's Sarasota Dolphin Research Program c/o Mote Marine Laboratory Sarasota Florida
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Enrico Pirotta, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Vancouver, WA.

                Email: pirotta.enrico@ 123456gmail.com

                © 2018 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Pages: 13, Words: 10417
                Funded by: E& &P Sound and Marine Life Joint Industry Project of the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers
                Funded by: Office of Naval Research
                Award ID: N00014‐09‐1‐0896
                Award ID: N00014‐12‐1‐0274
                Award ID: N00014‐15‐1‐2553
                Award ID: N00014‐16‐1‐2858
                Funded by: Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland
                Funded by: Scottish Funding Council
                Award ID: HR09011
                Custom metadata
                October 2018
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:version=5.5.1 mode:remove_FC converted:26.10.2018

                Evolutionary Biology
                anthropogenic disturbance,environmental impact assessments,marine mammals,nonconsumptive effects,population consequences,trait‐mediated indirect interactions,uncertainty


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