Blog
About

57
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired communication and social interaction and may be accompanied by mental retardation and epilepsy. Its cause remains unknown, despite evidence that genetic, environmental, and immunological factors may play a role in its pathogenesis. To investigate whether immune-mediated mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of autism, we used immunocytochemistry, cytokine protein arrays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to study brain tissues and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from autistic patients and determined the magnitude of neuroglial and inflammatory reactions and their cytokine expression profiles. Brain tissues from cerebellum, midfrontal, and cingulate gyrus obtained at autopsy from 11 patients with autism were used for morphological studies. Fresh-frozen tissues available from seven patients and CSF from six living autistic patients were used for cytokine protein profiling. We demonstrate an active neuroinflammatory process in the cerebral cortex, white matter, and notably in cerebellum of autistic patients. Immunocytochemical studies showed marked activation of microglia and astroglia, and cytokine profiling indicated that macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and tumor growth factor-beta1, derived from neuroglia, were the most prevalent cytokines in brain tissues. CSF showed a unique proinflammatory profile of cytokines, including a marked increase in MCP-1. Our findings indicate that innate neuroimmune reactions play a pathogenic role in an undefined proportion of autistic patients, suggesting that future therapies might involve modifying neuroglial responses in the brain.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 2

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Book Chapter: not found

          The Role of Microglia and Astrocytes in Cns Immune Surveillance and Immunopathology

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Subject Selection and Characterization in Clinical Trials in Children with Autism

              Bookmark

              Author and article information

              Journal
              Annals of Neurology
              Ann Neurol.
              Wiley
              0364-5134
              1531-8249
              January 2005
              January 2005
              2004
              : 57
              : 1
              : 67-81
              10.1002/ana.20315
              15546155
              © 2004

              http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

              Product
              Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ana.20315

              Comments

              Comment on this article