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El nacimiento en Cuba: análisis de la experiencia del parto medicalizado desde una perspectiva antropológica Translated title: Childbirth in Cuba: analysis of the experience of medically supervised delivery from an anthropological perspective

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      Abstract

      En Cuba, el conocimiento sobre el embarazo, el parto y el puerperio es deficiente actualmente, ya que el nacimiento ha sido abordado fundamentalmente como un evento médico, desde sus aristas clínicas. Su análisis desde las perspectivas teóricas de la Antropología Médica, puede contribuir a incrementar la calidez en los servicios de atención, así como al empoderamiento de las mujeres y los hombres como los principales responsables de sus procesos reproductivos. El presente estudio investigó la experiencia y percepción sobre el nacimiento en tres hospitales de La Habana. Su propósito fue comprender las representaciones y prácticas relacionadas con el parto y describir la experiencia de las mujeres. Se utilizaron técnicas cualitativas de investigación: entrevistas y observación participante a 36 mujeres en parto, diez familiares y nueve obstetras. Los discursos fueron analizados según la Teoría Fundamentada. Todos los nacimientos tuvieron lugar con numerosas intervenciones médicas. La experiencia de la maternidad fue muy intensa. La participación de los hombres fue limitada. Desde la perspectiva antropológica el uso rutinario de las intervenciones médicas y las regulaciones institucionales descritas se consideran manifestaciones de violencia física y de género.

      Translated abstract

      Knowledge about pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum in Cuba is currently poor. Childbirth has been fundamentally studied as a medical event from its clinical aspects. The analysis of the reproductive process from the Medical Anthropology perspective could contribute to healthcare services providing more humane treatment and to empowerment for women and men as the people primarily responsible for their reproductive processes. This study researched on the experience and the perception of childbirth in three hospitals located in Havana, with the objective of understanding the representations and practices associated to childbirth and of describing female experiences during this event. Qualitative research techniques were used such as interviews and participant observation of 36 women in labor, ten family members and nine obstetricians. The qualitative data was analyzed using Grounded Theory methodology. All the childbirths occurred with a number of medical interventions and the maternity experience was very intense. Male participation was restricted. From the anthropological perspective, the routine use of some medical interventions and the institutional regulations described herein are considered expressions of physical and gender violence.

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      Most cited references 41

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      Culture, Health and Illness

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        Hacia una práctica médica alternativa: Hegemonía y autoatención (gestión) en salud

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          WHO principles of perinatal care: the essential antenatal, perinatal, and postpartum care course.

          World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and meta-analyses of controlled trials have concluded that inappropriate perinatal care and technology continue to be practiced widely throughout the world, despite the acceptance of evidence-based principles and care. The WHO Regional Office for Europe, in consultation with policy makers and reproductive health experts recently proposed ten "Principles of Perinatal Care," which have been endorsed by the reproductive health units of most member states. A comprehensive training program, based on the principles, is now being offered throughout the European region. This paper describes the development of the WHO principles and the WHO training course "Essential Antenatal, Perinatal and Postpartum Care." Together they provide an innovative model of evidence-based and psychosocially sensitive care for the future guidance of perinatal policy makers and caregivers worldwide.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidad de La Habana Cuba
            [2 ] Escuela Nacional de Salud Pública Cuba
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            rcsp
            Revista Cubana de Salud Pública
            Rev. cub. salud pública
            Centro Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas (La Habana )
            0864-3466
            December 2013
            : 39
            : 4
            : 718-732
            S0864-34662013000400009

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Cuba
            Categories
            Health Policy & Services

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