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      Personal Growth and Associated Factors Among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in China: A Cross-Sectional Study

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          This cross-sectional study aimed to describe personal growth and to analyze its associated factors among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China.

          Patients and Methods

          A total of 364 Chinese COPD hospitalized patients were included in the study between November 2016 and April 2018. Participants provided demographic information and completed the Growth Through Uncertainty Scale (GTUS), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale (mMRC).


          The mean total score on the GTUS was 142.34 ( SD = 7.61). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that factors including educational level, average monthly income, social support, and breathlessness can influence personal growth ( R 2 = 0.427, F = 44.420, p < 0.001), explaining 42.7% of the variance.


          COPD patients tend to report a moderate level of personal growth in China. Educational level, average monthly income, social support, and breathlessness were significant factors associated with personal growth. Medical workers should be aware of the level of personal growth among COPD patients and make tailored interventions to facilitate COPD patients’ personal growth, such as increasing social support and decrease breathlessness.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Global and regional estimates of COPD prevalence: Systematic review and meta–analysis

          Background The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) across many world regions is high. We aim to estimate COPD prevalence and number of disease cases for the years 1990 and 2010 across world regions based on the best available evidence in publicly accessible scientific databases. Methods We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health for original, population–based studies providing spirometry–based prevalence rates of COPD across the world from January 1990 to December 2014. Random effects meta–analysis was conducted on extracted crude prevalence rates of COPD, with overall summaries of the meta–estimates (and confidence intervals) reported separately for World Health Organization (WHO) regions, the World Bank's income categories and settings (urban and rural). We developed a meta–regression epidemiological model that we used to estimate the prevalence of COPD in people aged 30 years or more. Findings Our search returned 37 472 publications. A total of 123 studies based on a spirometry–defined prevalence were retained for the review. From the meta–regression epidemiological model, we estimated about 227.3 million COPD cases in the year 1990 among people aged 30 years or more, corresponding to a global prevalence of 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.3%–14.0%) in this age group. The number of COPD cases increased to 384 million in 2010, with a global prevalence of 11.7% (8.4%–15.0%). This increase of 68.9% was mainly driven by global demographic changes. Across WHO regions, the highest prevalence was estimated in the Americas (13.3% in 1990 and 15.2% in 2010), and the lowest in South East Asia (7.9% in 1990 and 9.7% in 2010). The percentage increase in COPD cases between 1990 and 2010 was the highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (118.7%), followed by the African region (102.1%), while the European region recorded the lowest increase (22.5%). In 1990, we estimated about 120.9 million COPD cases among urban dwellers (prevalence of 13.2%) and 106.3 million cases among rural dwellers (prevalence of 8.8%). In 2010, there were more than 230 million COPD cases among urban dwellers (prevalence of 13.6%) and 153.7 million among rural dwellers (prevalence of 9.7%). The overall prevalence in men aged 30 years or more was 14.3% (95% CI 13.3%–15.3%) compared to 7.6% (95% CI 7.0%–8.2%) in women. Conclusions Our findings suggest a high and growing prevalence of COPD, both globally and regionally. There is a paucity of studies in Africa, South East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean region. There is a need for governments, policy makers and international organizations to consider strengthening collaborations to address COPD globally.
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            Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being.

             Carol Ryff (1989)
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              Predictors of posttraumatic growth following bone marrow transplantation for cancer.

              There is growing recognition that the experience of cancer can have a positive as well as a negative psychological impact. This longitudinal study sought to identify predictors of posttraumatic growth among cancer patients (N=72) undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Greater posttraumatic growth in the posttransplant period was related to younger age; less education; greater use of positive reinterpretation, problem solving, and seeking alternative rewards as coping strategies in the pretransplant period; more stressful appraisal of aspects of the transplant experience; and more negatively biased recall of pretransplant levels of psychological distress. Findings partially support J. A. Schaefer and R. H. Moos's (1992) model of life crises and personal growth and also suggest that temporal self-comparisons contribute to the experience of posttraumatic growth. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                17 November 2020
                : 15
                : 2977-2983
                [1 ]School of Nursing, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Wuhan, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Rory Meyers College of Nursing and NYU Aging Incubator, New York University , New York, NY, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jie Li; Jing Mao School of Nursing, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Hangkong Road 13, Qiaokou District, Wuhan430030, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 18971097091; +86 13317135988Fax +86 02783692635; +86 02783692657 Email;
                © 2020 Zhao et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, References: 43, Pages: 7
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                social support, breathlessness, personal growth, copd, china


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