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      Anisotropic size change during continuous quenching and deep freezing of tool steel


      HTM Härtereitechnische Mitteilungen

      Carl Hanser Verlag

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          The size change of a low carbon maraging steel and of a ledeburitic cold work tool steel produced by ingot (IN) or powder metallurgy (PM) was measured by dilatometry using specimens taken in longitudinal or transverse direction of hot working. The anisotropy of the size change during martensitic transformation De M was negative for the maraging and the PM steel, but positive for the IN steel and the more so, if the cooling rate was raised by injecting liquid nitrogen during quenching to —150°C. The microstructure and texture was investigated by high resolution SEM equipped with microprobe analysis and respective imaging as well as by EBSD. The results show that De M is not related to a texture of the martensitic matrix but to a microstructural banding caused by microsegregation and hot working. The alignment of the eutectic M 7C 3 carbides in the direction of hot working coincides with their texture.


          Die Maßänderung eines kohlenstoffarmen Maragingstahles und eines ledeburitischen Kaltarbeitsstahles, hergestellt durch Block- (IN) oder Pulvermetallurgie (PM), wurde dilatometrisch mit Proben erfasst, die längs oder quer zur Warmumformrichtung entnommen waren. Die Anisotropie der Maßänderung während der martensitischen Umwandlung De M war für den Maraging- und den PM-Stahl negativ, aber positiv für den IN-Stahl und zwar jeweils ausgeprägter, wenn die Abkühlgeschwindigkeit von 400°C bis —150°C durch Einspritzen von flüssigem Stickstoff erhöht wurde. Gefüge und Textur wurden mittels hochauflösendem REM untersucht, das mit Mikrosonde, Bildauswertung und EBSD ausgestattet war. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass De M nicht mit einer Textur der martensitischen Matrix zusammenhängt, sondern mit Gefügezeilen, die durch Mikroseigerung und Warmumformung entstehen. Die Ausrichtung von eutektischen M 7C 3-Carbiden in Warmumformrichtung fällt mit ihrer Textur zusammen.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Transformation Textures in Steels

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            Anisotropic dilatation behavior during transformation of hot rolled steels showing banded structure

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              Micromechanical modelling of microstress fields around carbide precipitates in alloy 600


                Author and article information

                HTM Härtereitechnische Mitteilungen
                Carl Hanser Verlag
                : 62
                : 5
                : 221-228
                Author notes

                Prof. em. Dr.-Ing. Hans Berns studied iron metallurgy at the Technical University of Aachen, Germany from 1955 to 1959. He then worked for 20 years in the speciality steel industry. Thereafter he held the Chair of Materials Technology at the Ruhr-University Bochum for another 20 years. Since 2000 he is an emeritus of this institution.

                Dr.-Ing. Haroldo C. Pinto received his diploma in material science at the Technical University of Berlin in 2001 and his degree as doctor of engineering in 2005. He worked for almost 2 years as a researcher at TUB and for 2 1/2 years at the Technical University of Vienna. Since 2006 he is group leader at the Max Planck Institute of Iron Research in Düsseldorf.

                Lecture held by H. Berns at the 5th Int. Conf. on Quenching and Control of Distortion and the European Conf. on Heat Treatment, 25–27 April 2007, in Berlin.

                © 2007, Carl Hanser Verlag, München
                Page count
                References: 29, Pages: 8
                Self URI (journal page):
                Fachbeiträge/Technical Contributions


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