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      3D Printing is a Transformative Technology in Congenital Heart Disease


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          Survival in congenital heart disease has steadily improved since 1938, when Dr. Robert Gross successfully ligated for the first time a patent ductus arteriosus in a 7-year-old child. To continue the gains made over the past 80 years, transformative changes with broad impact are needed in management of congenital heart disease. Three-dimensional printing is an emerging technology that is fundamentally affecting patient care, research, trainee education, and interactions among medical teams, patients, and caregivers. This paper first reviews key clinical cases where the technology has affected patient care. It then discusses 3-dimensional printing in trainee education. Thereafter, the role of this technology in communication with multidisciplinary teams, patients, and caregivers is described. Finally, the paper reviews translational technologies on the horizon that promise to take this nascent field even further.

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          The incidence of congenital heart disease.

          This study was designed to determine the reasons for the variability of the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD), estimate its true value and provide data about the incidence of specific major forms of CHD. The incidence of CHD in different studies varies from about 4/1,000 to 50/1,000 live births. The relative frequency of different major forms of CHD also differs greatly from study to study. In addition, another 20/1,000 live births have bicuspid aortic valves, isolated anomalous lobar pulmonary veins or a silent patent ductus arteriosus. The incidences reported in 62 studies published after 1955 were examined. Attention was paid to the ways in which the studies were conducted, with special reference to the increased use of echocardiography in the neonatal nursery. The total incidence of CHD was related to the relative frequency of ventricular septal defects (VSDs), the most common type of CHD. The incidences of individual major forms of CHD were determined from 44 studies. The incidence of CHD depends primarily on the number of small VSDs included in the series, and this number in turn depends upon how early the diagnosis is made. If major forms of CHD are stratified into trivial, moderate and severe categories, the variation in incidence depends mainly on the number of trivial lesions included. The incidence of moderate and severe forms of CHD is about 6/1,000 live births (19/1,000 live births if the potentially serious bicuspid aortic valve is included), and of all forms increases to 75/1,000 live births if tiny muscular VSDs present at birth and other trivial lesions are included. Given the causes of variation, there is no evidence for differences in incidence in different countries or times.
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            3D-printing techniques in a medical setting: a systematic literature review

            Background Three-dimensional (3D) printing has numerous applications and has gained much interest in the medical world. The constantly improving quality of 3D-printing applications has contributed to their increased use on patients. This paper summarizes the literature on surgical 3D-printing applications used on patients, with a focus on reported clinical and economic outcomes. Methods Three major literature databases were screened for case series (more than three cases described in the same study) and trials of surgical applications of 3D printing in humans. Results 227 surgical papers were analyzed and summarized using an evidence table. The papers described the use of 3D printing for surgical guides, anatomical models, and custom implants. 3D printing is used in multiple surgical domains, such as orthopedics, maxillofacial surgery, cranial surgery, and spinal surgery. In general, the advantages of 3D-printed parts are said to include reduced surgical time, improved medical outcome, and decreased radiation exposure. The costs of printing and additional scans generally increase the overall cost of the procedure. Conclusion 3D printing is well integrated in surgical practice and research. Applications vary from anatomical models mainly intended for surgical planning to surgical guides and implants. Our research suggests that there are several advantages to 3D-printed applications, but that further research is needed to determine whether the increased intervention costs can be balanced with the observable advantages of this new technology. There is a need for a formal cost–effectiveness analysis. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0236-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              3D Printed Bionic Ears

              The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

                Author and article information

                JACC Basic Transl Sci
                JACC Basic Transl Sci
                JACC: Basic to Translational Science
                30 May 2018
                April 2018
                30 May 2018
                : 3
                : 2
                : 294-312
                [a ]Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
                [b ]Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
                [c ]Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
                [d ]Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
                Author notes
                [] Address for correspondence: Dr. Shafkat Anwar, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, One Children’s Place, Campus Box 8116–NWT, St. Louis, Missouri 63110. anwars@ 123456wustl.edu
                © 2018 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 4 July 2017
                : 8 October 2017
                : 11 October 2017
                STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW

                cardiac imaging,cardiothoracic surgery,congenital heart disease,simulation,3d printing,3d, three-dimensional,achd, adults with congenital heart disease,apc, aortopulmonary collaterals,asd, atrial septal defect,chd, congenital heart disease,ct, computed tomography,dorv, double outlet right ventricle,mapcas, multiple aortopulmonary collaterals,mri, magnetic resonance imaging,or, operating room,vsd, ventricular septal defect


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