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      Impact of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms and Their Interactions with Environmental Factors on Susceptibility to Renal Cell Carcinoma

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          Abstract

          Aims: This study aimed to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) gene and additional gene-environment interaction with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. Methods: PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to detect SNPs. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and allele frequencies in cases and controls were calculated using SNPStats (http://bioinfo.iconcologia.net/SNPstats). Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was used to screen the best interaction combination among 4 SNPs, smoking, and alcohol drinking. Logistic regression was performed to investigate the association between 4 SNPs within VEGF gene, additional gene-smoking interaction, and RCC risk. Results: RCC risk was significantly higher in carriers with the T allele of rs833061 within VEGF gene than those with CC genotype (CT+TT vs. CC) {adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) = 1.71 (1.17–2.32), p = 0.002} and higher in carriers with the A allele of rs699947 within VEGF gene than those with GG genotype (GA+AA vs. GG) (adjusted OR [95% CI] = 1.64 [1.27–2.10], p < 0.001). GMDR analysis indicated a significant 2-locus model ( p = 0.0010) involving rs833061 and smoking. The cross-validation consistency of the 2-locus model was 10/10, and the testing accuracy was 60.72%. Current smokers with rs833061-CT+TT genotype had the highest RCC risk, compared to never smokers with rs833061-CC genotype within VEGF gene (OR [95% CI] = 3.02 [1.84–4.23], p < 0.001). Conclusions: We found that the T allele of rs833061 and the A allele of rs699947 within VEGF gene, and the interaction between rs833061 and smoking were all associated with increased RCC risk.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Role of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway in tumor growth and angiogenesis.

          New blood vessel formation (angiogenesis) is a fundamental event in the process of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Hence, the molecular basis of tumor angiogenesis has been of keen interest in the field of cancer research. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway is well established as one of the key regulators of this process. The VEGF/VEGF-receptor axis is composed of multiple ligands and receptors with overlapping and distinct ligand-receptor binding specificities, cell-type expression, and function. Activation of the VEGF-receptor pathway triggers a network of signaling processes that promote endothelial cell growth, migration, and survival from pre-existing vasculature. In addition, VEGF mediates vessel permeability, and has been associated with malignant effusions. More recently, an important role for VEGF has emerged in mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells from the bone marrow to distant sites of neovascularization. The well-established role of VEGF in promoting tumor angiogenesis and the pathogenesis of human cancers has led to the rational design and development of agents that selectively target this pathway. Studies with various anti-VEGF/VEGF-receptor therapies have shown that these agents can potently inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth in preclinical models. Recently, an anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab), when used in combination with chemotherapy, was shown to significantly improve survival and response rates in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and thus, validate VEGF pathway inhibitors as an important new treatment modality in cancer therapy.
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            Renal cell carcinoma in relation to cigarette smoking: meta-analysis of 24 studies.

            Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 3% of adult deaths from cancer. The risk factors for its development are still under intense investigation. Although tobacco smoke is a risk factor, the data are inconsistent and the extent of the increased risk is unclear. Estimates from 19 case-control and 5 cohort studies were used. The case-control reports included 8,032 cases and 13,800 controls; the cohort estimates were based on 1,457,754 participants with 1,326 cases of RCC. The relative risk (RR) for RCC for ever smokers as compared to lifetime never smokers was 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-1.50). The RR for male smokers was 1.54 (95% CI = 1.42-1.68) and for female smokers was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.09-1.36). For men and women there was a strong dose-dependent increase in risk. Ever smoker men who had smoked 1-9, 10-20 or 21 or more cigarettes/day had a RR of 1.60 (95% CI = 1.21-2.12), 1.83 (95% CI = 1.30-2.57), or 2.03 (95% CI = 1.51-2.74), respectively. For women, the relative risks were 0.98 (95% CI = 0.71-1.35), 1.38 (95% CI = 0.90-2.11), or 1.58 (95% CI = 1.14-2.20), respectively. The advantages of smoking cessation were confirmed by a reduction in RR for those who had quit smoking for >10 years as compared to those who had quit for 1-10 years. Inhaled tobacco smoke is clearly implicated in the etiology of RCC, with a strong dose-dependent increase in risk associated with numbers of cigarettes smoked per day and a substantial reduction in risk for long-term former smokers.
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              Nicotine promotes colon tumor growth and angiogenesis through beta-adrenergic activation.

              Cigarette smoking is a putative environmental risk factor for colon cancer. Nicotine, an active alkaloid in tobacco, has been implicated in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that oral nicotine administration (50 or 200 microg/ml) for 25 days stimulated growth of human colon cancer xenograft in nude mice. It also increased vascularization in the tumors and elevated cotinine and adrenaline plasma levels. beta-Adrenoceptors, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor tissues were also increased by nicotine. I.p. injection of beta(1)-selective antagonist (atenolol, 5 or 10 mg/kg) or beta(2)-selective antagonist (ICI 118,551, 5, or 10 mg/kg) blocked the nicotine-stimulated tumor growth dose dependently, in which beta(2)-selective antagonist produced a more prominent effect. beta-Adrenoceptors blockade also abrogated the stimulatory action of nicotine on microvessel densities as well as cell expression of COX-2, PGE(2), and VEGF, in which beta(2)-selective antagonist produced a significant effect. These findings provide a direct evidence that nicotine can enhance colon tumor growth mediated partly by stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors, preferentially the beta(2)-adrenoceptors. Activation of beta-adrenoceptors and the subsequent stimulation of COX-2, PGE(2), and VEGF expression is perhaps an important mechanism in the tumorigenic action of nicotine on colon tumor growth. These data suggest that beta-adrenoceptors play a modulatory role in the development of colon cancer and partly elucidate the carcinogenic action of cigarette smoke.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2020
                May 2020
                17 March 2020
                : 144
                : 5
                : 255-260
                Affiliations
                Department of Oncology and Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China
                Author notes
                *Prof. Dazhong Liao, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Southwest Medical University, 182 Chunhui Road, Longmatan, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000 (China), liaoddzz36@163.com
                Article
                505817 Nephron 2020;144:255–260
                10.1159/000505817
                32182617
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Experimental Nephrology and Genetics: Research Article

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