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      Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of the new second-generation nonnucleoside reverse- transcriptase inhibitor KM-023 in healthy subjects

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          Abstract

          Background

          KM-023 is a new second-generation nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor that is under development for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection.

          Objective

          This study determined KM-023 tolerability and pharmacokinetic characteristics in healthy subjects.

          Materials and methods

          A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study was conducted in 80 healthy South Korean male volunteers. The subjects were allocated to single- or multiple-dose (once daily for 7 days) groups that received 75, 150, 300, or 600 mg drug or placebo in a 4:1 ratio. Safety and pharmacokinetic assessments were performed during the study. Plasma and urine concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.

          Results

          The average maximum concentration (C max) and area under the concentration–time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC ) values of KM-023 for the 75–600 mg doses in the single-dose study ranged from 440.2 ng/mL to 1,245.4 ng/mL and 11,142.4 ng · h/mL to 33,705.6 ng · h/mL, respectively. Values of the mean C max at a steady state and AUC within the dosing interval ranged from 385.1 ng/mL to 1,096.7 ng/mL and 3,698.9 ng · h/mL to 10,232.6 ng · h/mL, respectively, following 75–600 mg doses in the multiple-dose study. Dose proportionality was not observed for KM-023. KM-023 showed a 0.6-fold accumulation after multiple doses in the 600 mg dose group. The mean half-life values ranged between 20.7 and 31.2 hours. KM-023 was generally well tolerated without serious adverse events.

          Conclusion

          KM-023 demonstrated dose- and time-dependent nonlinear pharmacokinetic characteristics after single or multiple doses over a dose range (75–600 mg) in healthy subjects. KM-023 showed favorable tolerability in this study. This Phase I clinical trial information can be used to design further clinical studies appropriately to evaluate KM-023 in patients with HIV-1 infection.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection: 2008 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel.

          The availability of new antiretroviral drugs and formulations, including drugs in new classes, and recent data on treatment choices for antiretroviral-naive and -experienced patients warrant an update of the International AIDS Society-USA guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To summarize new data in the field and to provide current recommendations for the antiretroviral management and laboratory monitoring of HIV infection. This report provides guidelines in key areas of antiretroviral management: when to initiate therapy, choice of initial regimens, patient monitoring, when to change therapy, and how best to approach treatment options, including optimal use of recently approved drugs (maraviroc, raltegravir, and etravirine) in treatment-experienced patients. A 14-member panel with expertise in HIV research and clinical care was appointed. Data published or presented at selected scientific conferences since the last panel report (August 2006) through June 2008 were identified. Data that changed the previous guidelines were reviewed by the panel (according to section). Guidelines were drafted by section writing committees and were then reviewed and edited by the entire panel. Recommendations were made by panel consensus. New data and considerations support initiating therapy before CD4 cell count declines to less than 350/microL. In patients with 350 CD4 cells/microL or more, the decision to begin therapy should be individualized based on the presence of comorbidities, risk factors for progression to AIDS and non-AIDS diseases, and patient readiness for treatment. In addition to the prior recommendation that a high plasma viral load (eg, >100,000 copies/mL) and rapidly declining CD4 cell count (>100/microL per year) should prompt treatment initiation, active hepatitis B or C virus coinfection, cardiovascular disease risk, and HIV-associated nephropathy increasingly prompt earlier therapy. The initial regimen must be individualized, particularly in the presence of comorbid conditions, but usually will include efavirenz or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor plus 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine). Treatment failure should be identified and managed promptly, with the goal of therapy, even in heavily pretreated patients, being an HIV-1 RNA level below assay detection limits.
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            Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection.

            The use of either efavirenz or lopinavir-ritonavir plus two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is recommended for initial therapy for patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but which of the two regimens has greater efficacy is not known. The alternative regimen of lopinavir-ritonavir plus efavirenz may prevent toxic effects associated with NRTIs. In an open-label study, we compared three regimens for initial therapy: efavirenz plus two NRTIs (efavirenz group), lopinavir-ritonavir plus two NRTIs (lopinavir-ritonavir group), and lopinavir-ritonavir plus efavirenz (NRTI-sparing group). We randomly assigned 757 patients with a median CD4 count of 191 cells per cubic millimeter and a median HIV-1 RNA level of 4.8 log10 copies per milliliter to the three groups. At a median follow-up of 112 weeks, the time to virologic failure was longer in the efavirenz group than in the lopinavir-ritonavir group (P=0.006) but was not significantly different in the NRTI-sparing group from the time in either of the other two groups. At week 96, the proportion of patients with fewer than 50 copies of plasma HIV-1 RNA per milliliter was 89% in the efavirenz group, 77% in the lopinavir-ritonavir group, and 83% in the NRTI-sparing group (P=0.003 for the comparison between the efavirenz group and the lopinavir-ritonavir group). The groups did not differ significantly in the time to discontinuation because of toxic effects. At virologic failure, antiretroviral resistance mutations were more frequent in the NRTI-sparing group than in the other two groups. Virologic failure was less likely in the efavirenz group than in the lopinavir-ritonavir group. The virologic efficacy of the NRTI-sparing regimen was similar to that of the efavirenz regimen but was more likely to be associated with drug resistance. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00050895 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Clinical pharmacokinetics of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

              Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are a diverse group of compounds that induce allosteric changes in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase, thus rendering the enzyme incapable of converting viral RNA to DNA. Unlike nucleoside analogue inhibitors of reverse transcriptase, NNRTIs do not require sequential phosphorylation to elicit antiretroviral activity. There are currently 3 approved NNRTIs: nevirapine, delavirdine and efavirenz. Although possessing a common mechanism of action, these agents can be differentiated by both molecular and pharmacokinetic characteristics. Each of the NNRTIs is metabolised to some degree by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system of enzymes, making them prone to clinically significant drug interactions. In addition, they elicit variable effects on other medications, acting as either inducers or inhibitors of drugs metabolised by CYP. These drug interactions are an important consideration in the clinical use of these agents as a part of combination antiretroviral therapy. Additional factors such as the influence of food and pH on oral absorption, and protein binding, must also be considered.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                26 September 2014
                : 8
                : 1613-1619
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
                [2 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, CHA University School of Medicine and CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam, South Korea
                [3 ]Kainos Medicine USA Inc., Morrisville, NC, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kyung-Sang Yu, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, South Korea, Tel +82 2 2072 1920, Fax +82 2 742 9252, Email ksyu@ 123456snu.ac.kr

                *These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-8-1613
                10.2147/DDDT.S65596
                4189701
                25302016
                © 2014 Cha et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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