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      Glyphosate Resistance Affect the Physiological Quality of Conyza bonariensis seeds Translated title: A Resistência ao Glyphosate Afeta a Qualidade Fisiológica das Sementes de Conyza bonariensis

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          ABSTRACT: High seed production and dispersal capacity and glyphosate resistance are among the main factors that have made hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) one of the most important and dispersed weeds in the world. Herbicide-resistant weeds populations may have fitness cost due to molecular, physiological, and biochemical changes. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds of Conyza spp. and determine whether glyphosate resistance causes fitness costs for resistant biotypes. Seeds from six hairy fleabane biotypes, three glyphosate-resistant and three -sensitive, with a resistance factor average of 11.7 were studied. Among the studied biotypes, five were identified as C. bonariensis and one as C. blakei. Seed analyses were performed in a completely randomized design with ten replications of 100 seeds each (1,000 seeds per biotype). The analyzed seeds were originated from second-generation self-pollinating plants with known segregation rate. The mean results indicate that, in relation to sglyphosate-sensitive biotypes of C. bonariensis, seeds from -resistant biotypes showed a 16% reduction in vigor and 13% in germination, a 44% increase in the number of empty seeds and approximately five times more viable dormant seeds. The lower physiological quality of glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane seeds regarding to -sensitive indicates that resistance affect the seed’s physiology and causes a fitness costs. It implies a reduction of invasive potential and persistence in the environment of resistant biotypes. Therefore, in the absence of glyphosate as a selective factor, the frequency of resistant biotypes tends to decrease and increase the predominancy of glyphosate-sensitivre biotypes. However, the highest number of viable dormant seeds of resistant biotypes supplies the soil seed bank. All biotypes of C. bonariensis showed higher physiological quality of seeds when compared to C. blakei, indicating that the first species is more adaptably evolved for survival in agricultural and disturbed areas.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO: A alta capacidade de produção e dispersão de sementes e a resistência ao glyphosate estão entre os principais fatores que tornaram a buva (Conyza bonariensis) uma das mais importantes e dispersas plantas daninhas no mundo. Populações de plantas resistentes a herbicidas podem apresentar penalidades em função das alterações moleculares, fisiológicas e bioquímicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de biótipos de Conyza spp. e determinar se a resistência ao glyphosate causa penalidades aos biótipos resistentes. Foram avaliadas sementes de seis biótipos de buva, sendo três resistentes e três sensíveis ao glyphosate, com fator de resistência de 11,7. Entre os biótipos estudados, cinco foram identificados como C. bonariensis e um como C. blakei. As análises das sementes foram realizadas no delineamento completamente casualizado com dez repetições de 100 sementes cada (1.000 sementes por biótipo). As sementes utilizadas nas análises foram originadas de plantas de segunda geração de autopolinização com taxa de segregação conhecida. Os resultados médios indicam que, em relação aos biótipos sensíveis de C. bonariensis, as sementes dos biótipos resistentes apresentaram redução de 16% no vigor e 13% na germinação, aumento de 44% no número de sementes vazias e em torno de cinco vezes mais sementes dormentes viáveis. A menor qualidade fisiológica de sementes da buva resistente ao glyphosate indica que a resistência causa penalidade. Essa penalidade implica redução do potencial invasivo e persistência no ambiente dos biótipos resistentes. Assim, na ausência do fator seletivo glyphosate, a frequência de biótipos resistentes tende a diminuir e retornar a suscetibilidade. Entretanto, o maior número de sementes dormentes viáveis dos biótipos resistentes abastece o banco de sementes do solo. Todos os biótipos de C. bonariensis apresentaram maior qualidade fisiológica das sementes em comparação ao biótipo de C. blakei, indicando que a primeira espécie é mais evoluída do ponto de vista adaptativo para sobrevivência em áreas agrícolas.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Crop losses to pests

           E. Oerke (2006)
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            Unravelling the genetic bases of non-target-site-based resistance (NTSR) to herbicides: a major challenge for weed science in the forthcoming decade.

            Non-target-site-based resistance (NTSR) can confer unpredictable cross-resistance to herbicides. However, the genetic determinants of NTSR remain poorly known. The current, urgent challenge for weed scientists is thus to elucidate the bases of NTSR so that detection tools are developed, the evolution of NTSR is understood, the efficacy of the shrinking herbicide portfolio is maintained and integrated weed management strategies, including fully effective herbicide applications, are designed and implemented. In this paper, the importance of NTSR in resistance to herbicides is underlined. The most likely way in which NTSR evolves-by accumulation of different mechanisms within individual plants-is described. The NTSR mechanisms, which can interfere with herbicide penetration, translocation and accumulation at the target site, and/or protect the plant against the consequences of herbicide action, are then reviewed. NTSR is a part of the plant stress response. As such, NTSR is a dynamic process unrolling over time that involves 'protectors' directly interfering with herbicide action, and also regulators controlling 'protector' expression. NTSR is thus a quantitative trait. On this basis, a three-step procedure is proposed, based on the use of the 'omics' (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics or metabolomics), to unravel the genetic bases of NTSR. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
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              Characterization of the horseweed (Conyza canadensis) transcriptome using GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencing and its application for expression analysis of candidate non-target herbicide resistance genes.

              The de novo transcriptome sequencing of a weedy plant using GS-FLX 454 technologies is reported. Horseweed (Conyza canadensis L.) was the first broadleaf weed to evolve glyphosate resistance in agriculture, and also is the most widely distributed glyphosate-resistant weed in the United States and the world. However, available sequence data for this species are scant. The transcriptomic sequence should be useful for gene discovery, and to help elucidate the non-target-based glyphosate resistance mechanism and the genomic basis of weediness. Sequencing experiments yielded 411 962 raw reads, an average read length of 233 bp and a total dataset of 95.8 Mb (NCBI accession number SRA010952). After trimming and quality control, 379 152 high-quality sequences were retained and assembled into contigs. The assembly resulted in 31 783 unique transcripts, including 16 102 contigs and 15 681 singletons. The average coverage depth for each contig and each nucleotide position was 22-fold and 12-fold respectively. A total of 16 306 unique sequences were annotated by searching a custom plant protein database. The utility of the transcriptome data was demonstrated by further exploration of ABC transporters, which were previously hypothesized to play a role in non-target glyphosate resistance. Real-time RT-PCR primers were designed from the transcriptome data, which made it possible to assess expression patterns of 17 ABC transporters from resistant and susceptible horseweed accessions from Tennessee, with and without glyphosate treatment. These results show that GS-FLX 454 sequencing is a powerful and cost-effective platform for the development of functional genomic tools for a weed species.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Planta Daninha
                Planta daninha
                Sociedade Brasileira da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas (Viçosa, MG, Brazil )
                : 37
                Pelotas Rio Grande do Sul orgnameUniversidade Federal de Pelotas Brazil
                Passo Fundo Rio Grande do Sul orgnameEmbrapa Trigo Brazil

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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