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      The dorsal arcopallium of chicks displays the expression of orthologs of mammalian fear related serotonin receptor subfamily genes

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          Abstract

          Fear is an adaptive emotion that elicits defensive behavioural responses against aversive threats in animals. In mammals, serotonin receptors (5-HTRs) have been shown to modulate fear-related neural circuits in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA). To understand the phylogenetic continuity of the neural basis for fear, it is important to identify the neural circuit that processes fear in other animals. In birds, fear-related behaviours were suggested to be processed in the arcopallium/amygdala complex and modulated by the serotonin (5-HT) system. However, details about the distribution of 5-HTRs in the avian brain are very sparsely reported, and the 5-HTR that is potentially involved in fear-related behaviour has not been elucidated. In this study, we showed that orthologs of mammalian 5-HTR genes that are expressed in the BLA, namely 5-HTR1A, 5-HTR1B, 5-HTR2A, 5-HTR2C, 5-HTR3A, and 5-HTR4, are expressed in a part of the chick arcopallium/amygdala complex called the dorsal arcopallium. This suggests that serotonergic regulation in the dorsal arcopallium may play an important role in regulating fear-related behaviour in birds. Our findings can be used as a basis for comparing the processing of fear and its serotonergic modulation in the mammalian amygdala complex and avian arcopallium/amygdala complex.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Pallial and subpallial derivatives in the embryonic chick and mouse telencephalon, traced by the expression of the genes Dlx-2, Emx-1, Nkx-2.1, Pax-6, and Tbr-1.

          Pallial and subpallial morphological subdivisions of the developing chicken telencephalon were examined by means of gene markers, compared with their expression pattern in the mouse. Nested expression domains of the genes Dlx-2 and Nkx-2.1, plus Pax-6-expressing migrated cells, are characteristic for the mouse subpallium. The genes Pax-6, Tbr-1, and Emx-1 are expressed in the pallium. The pallio-subpallial boundary lies at the interface between the Tbr-1 and Dlx-2 expression domains. Differences in the expression topography of Tbr-1 and Emx-1 suggest the existence of a novel "ventral pallium" subdivision, which is an Emx-1-negative pallial territory intercalated between the striatum and the lateral pallium. Its derivatives in the mouse belong to the claustroamygdaloid complex. Chicken genes homologous to these mouse genes are expressed in topologically comparable patterns during development. The avian subpallium, called "paleostriatum," shows nested Dlx-2 and Nkx-2.1 domains and migrated Pax-6-positive neurons; the avian pallium expresses Pax-6, Tbr-1, and Emx-1 and also contains a distinct Emx-1-negative ventral pallium, formed by the massive domain confusingly called "neostriatum." These expression patterns extend into the septum and the archistriatum, as they do into the mouse septum and amygdala, suggesting that the concepts of pallium and subpallium can be extended to these areas. The similarity of such molecular profiles in the mouse and chicken pallium and subpallium points to common sets of causal determinants. These may underlie similar histogenetic specification processes and field homologies, including some comparable connectivity patterns. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Emotion circuits in the brain.

            The field of neuroscience has, after a long period of looking the other way, again embraced emotion as an important research area. Much of the progress has come from studies of fear, and especially fear conditioning. This work has pinpointed the amygdala as an important component of the system involved in the acquisition, storage, and expression of fear memory and has elucidated in detail how stimuli enter, travel through, and exit the amygdala. Some progress has also been made in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie fear conditioning, and recent studies have also shown that the findings from experimental animals apply to the human brain. It is important to remember why this work on emotion succeeded where past efforts failed. It focused on a psychologically well-defined aspect of emotion, avoided vague and poorly defined concepts such as "affect," "hedonic tone," or "emotional feelings," and used a simple and straightforward experimental approach. With so much research being done in this area today, it is important that the mistakes of the past not be made again. It is also time to expand from this foundation into broader aspects of mind and behavior.
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              Molecular biology of 5-HT receptors.

              Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter whose effects are mediated by at least 13 distinct G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the type A family which includes the monoamine receptors and a combination of ligand-gated ion channels (5-HT3) of the Cys loop family which constitutes heteropentamers. 5-HT receptors are currently divided into seven classes (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), based on structural, transductional and operational features. While this degree of physical diversity clearly underscores the physiological importance of serotonin, evidence for an even greater degree of operational diversity is supported by the existence of a great number of splice and editing variants for several 5-HT receptors, their possible modulation by accessory proteins and chaperones, as well as their potential to form homo or heteromers both at the GPCR and at the ligand-gated channel level.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                shinji-y@pharm.teikyo-u.ac.jp
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                3 December 2020
                3 December 2020
                2020
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.264706.1, ISNI 0000 0000 9239 9995, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Life and Health Sciences, , Teikyo University, ; 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8605 Japan
                [2 ]GRID grid.39158.36, ISNI 0000 0001 2173 7691, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, , Hokkaido University, ; Hokkaido, 060-0810 Japan
                Article
                78247
                10.1038/s41598-020-78247-9
                7712838
                33273690
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: Fund for the Promotion of Joint International Research (Fostering Joint International Research (B))
                Award ID: 19KK0211
                Funded by: Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
                Award ID: 18K06667
                Award ID: 20K06915
                Award ID: 18K07351
                Award ID: 20K16472
                Award ID: 20K06747
                Funded by: a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas “Evolinguistics”
                Award ID: 20H05012
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2020

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                amygdala, neural circuits, neurochemistry

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