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      Blood Pressure Recordings within and outside the Clinic and Cardiovascular Events in Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Background: Blood pressure (BP) measured outside the clinic correlates better with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with essential hypertension. To assess the role of out-of-clinic BP recordings in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), a prospective cohort study was conducted in 217 veterans with CKD. Methods: BP was measured outside the clinic at home and by 24-hour ambulatory recordings, and in the clinic by ‘routine’ and standardized methods. Patients were followed over a median of 3.4 years to assess the combined end-point of total mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke. Results: Average (±SD) home BP was 147.0 ± 21.4/78.3 ± 11.6 mm Hg, 24-hour ambulatory BP 133.5 ± 16.6/73.1 ± 11.1 mm Hg and in-clinic BPs were 155.2 ± 25.6/84.7 ± 14.2 mm Hg by the standardized method, and 144.5 ± 24.2/75.4 ± 14.7 mm Hg by the ‘routine’ method. A 1 SD increase in systolic BP increased the hazard ratio (HR) of the composite end-point by 1.16 (95% CI 0.89–1.50) for routine BP, 1.57 (95% CI 1.19–2.09) for standardized BP, 1.66 (95% CI 1.27–2.17) for home BP, and 1.42 (95% CI 1.10–1.84) for 24-hour ambulatory BP recording. The HR of the composite end-point was only significant for hypertension defined by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (HR 2.22 (95% CI 1.23–4.01)). Adjusted for the propensity scores, BP measured by the ambulatory technique was not an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Non-dipping was associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but not when adjusted for other risk factors. Conclusion: Risk factors that differentiate hypertension or non-dipping appear to confer a cardiovascular risk in CKD.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Effect of Blood Pressure Lowering and Antihypertensive Drug Class on Progression of Hypertensive Kidney DiseaseResults From the AASK Trial

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            Very low levels of microalbuminuria are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and death independently of renal function, hypertension, and diabetes.

            The aim of this study was to assess the level of urinary albumin excretion (microalbuminuria), which is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and death, in the population. Microalbuminuria has been suggested as an atherosclerotic risk factor. However, the lower cutoff level of urinary albumin excretion is unknown. It is also unknown whether impaired renal function confounds the association. In the Third Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1992 to 1994, 2762 men and women 30 to 70 years of age underwent a detailed cardiovascular investigation program, including a timed overnight urine sample. The participants were then followed up prospectively by registers until 1999 with respect to coronary heart disease and until 2001 with respect to death. During follow-up, 109 incident cases of coronary heart disease and 276 deaths were traced. A urinary albumin excretion above the upper quartile, ie, 4.8 microg/min, was associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.0; P 4.8 microg/min (corresponding to approximately 6.4 microg/min during daytime), is a strong and independent determinant of coronary heart disease and death. Our suggestion is to redefine microalbuminuria accordingly and perform intervention studies.
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              Ambulatory blood pressure and 10-year risk of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality: the Ohasama study.

              The objective of this study was to elucidate the long-term prognostic significance of ambulatory blood pressure. Ambulatory and casual blood pressure values were obtained from 1332 subjects (872 women and 460 men) aged >or=40 years from the general population of a rural Japanese community. Survival was then followed for 14 370 patient years and analyzed by a Cox hazard model adjusted for possible confounding factors. There were 72 cardiovascular deaths during the 10.8-year follow-up. The relationship between 24-hour systolic blood pressure and the cardiovascular mortality risk was U-shaped in the first 5 years, then changed to J-shaped over the rest of the 10.8-year follow-up. After censoring the first 2 years of data, the risk flattened until it again increased for the fifth quintile of 24-hour systolic blood pressure for the 10.8-year follow-up period. For 24-hour diastolic blood pressure, the J-shaped relationship remained unchanged, regardless of follow-up duration and censoring. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure values consistently showed stronger predictive power for cardiovascular mortality risk than did casual systolic blood pressure in the 10.8-year follow-up data, whereas such relationships became more marked after censoring the first 2 years. When nighttime and daytime systolic blood pressure values were simultaneously included in the same Cox model, only nighttime blood pressure significantly predicted the cardiovascular mortality risk for the 10.8-year follow-up data. We conclude that the relationship between ambulatory systolic blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality is not U-shaped or J-shaped, and that nighttime blood pressure has better prognostic value than daytime blood pressure.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2006
                19 December 2006
                : 26
                : 5
                : 503-510
                Indiana University School of Medicine and Richard L. Roudebush Veterans Administration Medical Center, Indianapolis, Ind., USA
                97366 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:503–510
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, References: 24, Pages: 8
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/97366
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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