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      The distribution of Cteniloricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): known and new records in Brazil suggest headwater captures as drivers of disjoint distribution

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          Abstract Cteniloricaria is a genus of Neotropical armored catfishes belonging to the Loricariinae, currently including two valid species: C. platystoma and C. napova. Cteniloricaria platystoma is presently recorded across the main coastal drainages of the Guiana Shield, from the Sinnamary River, French Guiana, to the Essequibo River basin, Guyana, and is considered to be restricted to the region. Cteniloricaria napova is only known from its type locality at the headwaters of the Paru de Oeste River, Amazon basin, Sipaliwini Savannah, Trio Amerindian territory in Suriname, close to the Brazilian border. Based on a specimen of C. napova, captured in the Cuminapanema River, a tributary to the Curuá River, within Brazilian territory, the geographic distribution of the species and the genus is extended, representing the first record of Cteniloricaria in Brazil. The genus shows a disjoint distribution, and divergence between populations in the north-flowing coastal rivers of the Guianas and the south-flowing Amazon tributaries, and more recent headwater capture between south-flowing Amazon tributaries, may have played a key role in shaping its current distribution. Illustrations, diagnostic characters, morphometrics, description of the habitat where the new specimen was captured, extinction risk assessment, and a discussion of the distribution of the genus are provided.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo Cteniloricaria é um gênero de cascudos neotropicais pertencente à Loricariinae, atualmente incluindo duas espécies válidas: C. platystoma e C. napova. Atualmente, C. platystoma é registrada nas principais drenagens costeiras do Escudo das Guianas, desde o rio Sinnamary, na Guiana Francesa, até a bacia do rio Essequibo, Guyana, sendo considerada restrita à região. Cteniloricaria napova é conhecida unicamente por sua localidade-tipo nas cabeceiras do rio Paru de Oeste, bacia Amazônica, Savana Sipaliwini, território indígena de Trio, no Suriname, próximo à fronteira com o Brasil. Com base em um espécime de C. napova, capturado no rio Cuminapanema, afluente do rio Curuá, em território brasileiro, a distribuição geográfica da espécie e do gênero se estende até a bacia do rio Curuá, representando o primeiro registro de Cteniloricaria no Brasil. O gênero apresenta uma distribuição disjunta e, eventos como divergência entre as populações dos rios costeiros das Guianas e nos afluentes do Amazonas, e mais recente captura de cabeceiras entre os afluentes do Amazonas, podem ter desempenhado um papel fundamental em sua distribuição atual. São fornecidos ilustrações, caracteres diagnósticos, morfometria, descrição do habitat onde o novo espécime foi capturado, avaliação do risco de extinção e uma discussão sobre a distribuição do gênero.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America

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            Genes meet geology: fish phylogeographic pattern reflects ancient, rather than modern, drainage connections.

            We used DNA analysis of the freshwater Galaxias vulgaris complex (Pisces: Galaxiidae) to test a geological hypothesis of drainage evolution in South Island, New Zealand. Geological evidence suggests that the presently north-flowing Nevis River branch of the Clutha/Kawarau River system (Otago) once flowed south into the Nokomai branch of the Mataura system (Southland). The flow reversal is thought to have resulted from fault and fold activity associated with post-Miocene uplift. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data (control region and cytochrome b genes; 76 individuals; maximum divergence 7.1%) corroborate this geomorphological hypothesis: The Nevis River retains a freshwater fish species (Galaxias gollumoides; five sites; 10 haplotypes) that is otherwise restricted to Southland (nine sites; 15 haplotypes). There is no indication that the Nevis River lineage of G. gollumoides lives elsewhere in the Clutha/ Kawarau system (> 30 sites). Likewise, two widespread Clutha lineages (G. 'sp D'; G. anomalus-G. pullus) are apparently absent from the Nevis (> 30 sites). In particular, G. 'sp D' lives throughout much of the Clutha (12 sites, 23 haplotypes), including a tributary of the Kawarau, but is absent from the Nevis itself. Conventional molecular clock calibrations (based on a minimum Nevis-Mataura haplotype divergence of 3.0%) indicate that the Nevis flow reversal may have occurred in the early-mid Pleistocene, which is roughly consistent with geological data. The broad phylogeographic structure evident in the Clutha system is consistent with the sedentary nature of nonmigratory galaxiids. Our study reinforces the value of combining biological and geological data for the formulation and testing of historical hypotheses.
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              Classification and catalogue of the mailed Loricariidae (Pisces, Siluriformes)


                Author and article information

                Neotropical Ichthyology
                Neotrop. ichthyol.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia (Maringá, PR, Brazil )
                : 19
                : 2
                Belém PA orgnameMuseu Paraense Emilio Goeldi orgdiv1Setor Ictiologia orgdiv2Programa de Capacitação Institucional Brazil barreira.mm@ 123456gmail.com
                Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro orgnameUniversidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro orgdiv1Museu Nacional Brazil alondonoburbano@ 123456gmail.com
                Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul orgnamePontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul Brazil reis@ 123456pucrs.br
                S1679-62252021000200209 S1679-6225(21)01900200209

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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