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      Contribution to the Determination of In Vivo Mechanical Characteristics of Human Skin by Indentation Test

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          Abstract

          This paper proposes a triphasic model of intact skin in vivo based on a general phenomenological thermohydromechanical and physicochemical (THMPC) approach of heterogeneous media. The skin is seen here as a deforming stratified medium composed of four layers and made out of different fluid-saturated materials which contain also an ionic component. All the layers are treated as linear, isotropic materials described by their own behaviour law. The numerical simulations of in vivo indentation test performed on human skin are given. The numerical results correlate reasonably well with the typical observations of indented human skin. The discussion shows the versatility of this approach to obtain a better understanding on the mechanical behaviour of human skin layers separately.

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          Most cited references48

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          In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology.

          In 1995, we reported the construction of a video-rate scanning laser confocal microscope for imaging human skin in vivo. Since then, we have improved the resolution, contrast, depth of imaging, and field of view. Confocal images of human skin are shown with experimentally measured lateral resolution 0.5-1.0 microm and axial resolution (section thickness) 3-5 microm at near-infrared wavelengths of 830 nm and 1064 nm; this resolution compares well to that of histology which is based on typically 5 microm thin sections. Imaging is possible to maximum depth of 350 microm over field of view of 160-800 microm. A mechanical skin-contact device was developed to laterally stabilize the imaging site to within +/- 25 microm in the presence of subject motion. Based on these results, we built a small, portable, and robust confocal microscope that is capable of imaging normal and abnormal skin morphology and dynamic processes in vivo, in both laboratory and clinical settings. We report advances in confocal microscope instrumentation and methods, an optimum range of parameters, improved images of normal human skin, and comparison of confocal images with histology.
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            In vivo measurements of the elastic mechanical properties of human skin by indentation tests.

            Knowledge about the human skin mechanical properties is essential in several domains, particularly for dermatology, cosmetic or to detect some cutaneous pathology. This study proposes a new method to determine the human skin mechanical properties in vivo using the indentation test. Usually, the skin mechanical parameters obtained with this method are influenced by the mechanical properties of the subcutaneous layers, like muscles. In this study, different mechanical models were used to evaluate the effect of the subcutaneous layers on the measurements and to extract the skin elastic properties from the global mechanical response. The obtained results demonstrate that it is necessary to take into account the effect of the subcutaneous layers to correctly estimate the skin Young's modulus. Moreover, the results illustrate that the variation of the measured Young's modulus at low penetration depth cannot be correctly described with usual one-layer mechanical models. Thus a two-layer elastic model was proposed, which highly improved the measurement of the skin mechanical properties.
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              Mechanical properties and Young's modulus of human skin in vivo

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Comput Math Methods Med
                Comput Math Methods Med
                CMMM
                Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1748-670X
                1748-6718
                2013
                13 November 2013
                : 2013
                : 814025
                Affiliations
                Université de Lyon, ENISE LTDS UMR 5513 CNRS, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Étienne, France
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Eddie Ng

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8833-0164
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5791-8750
                Article
                10.1155/2013/814025
                3845247
                5376ac5a-8b60-42c9-87ae-e3073fd6684f
                Copyright © 2013 Marie-Angèle Abellan et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 18 July 2013
                : 9 September 2013
                : 9 September 2013
                Categories
                Research Article

                Applied mathematics
                Applied mathematics

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