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      Two new West Palaearctic species of Atelestus Walker (Diptera, Atelestidae) and new distributional records of the family

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          Abstract

          Atelestus turcicus Barták, sp. nov. (Turkey) and Atelestus ibericus Barták, sp. nov. (Spain) are described and illustrated. A key to all known Palaearctic species of Atelestus is provided and the main diagnostic characters are discussed. The female of Nemedina acutiformis Carles-Tolrá, 2008 is described for the first time. New distributional records are presented: Atelestus dissonans Collin, 1961 – first records from Spain and Bulgaria, A. pulicarius (Fallén, 1816) – first record from Turkey, Nemedina alamirabilis Chandler, 1981 – first record from Bulgaria and N. acutiformis Carles-Tolrá, 2008 – first record from Turkey.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Evolution and phylogenetic utility of CAD (rudimentary) among Mesozoic-aged Eremoneuran Diptera (Insecta).

          We sequenced nearly the entire carbomoylphosphate synthase (CPS) domain of CAD, or rudimentary, (ca. 4 kb) from 29 species of flies representing all major clades within Eremoneura, or higher flies, and several orthorrhaphous brachyceran outgroups. We compared these sequences with orthologs from Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster to assess structure, compositional bias, and phylogenetic utility. CAD is large (6.6+ kb), complex (comprised of three major and myriad minor functional domains) and relatively free of introns, extreme nucleotide bias (except third codon positions), and large hypervariable regions. The CPS domain possesses moderate levels of nonsynonymous divergence among taxa of intermediate evolutionary age and conveys considerable phylogenetic signal. Phylogenetic analysis of CPS sequences under varying methods and assumptions resulted in well-resolved, strongly supported trees concordant with many traditional ideas about higher dipteran phylogeny and with prior inferences from 28S rDNA. The most robustly supported major eremoneuran clades were Cyclorrhapha, Platypezoidea, Eumuscomorpha, Empidoidea, Atelestidae, Empidoidea exclusive of Atelestidae, Hybotidae s.l., Microphoridae+Dolichopodidae, and Empididae s. str. Because CAD is ubiquitous, apparently single copy (at least within holometabolous insects), readily obtained from several insect orders using primers described herein, and exhibits considerable phylogenetic utility, it should have wide applicability in insect molecular systematics.
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            Homology and phylogenetic implications of male genitalia in Diptera - Eremoneura

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              The morphology, higher-level phylogeny and classification of the Empidoidea (Diptera)

              A cladistic analysis of the Empidoidea and basal lineages of the Cyclorrhapha, based on morphological characters, confirms the monophyly of both groups as well as that of the                    Eremoneura. The resulting final trees are used to revise the classification of the Empidoidea to include the following five families: Empididae, Hybotidae, Atelestidae (including Nemedininae n. subfam.), Brachystomatidae rev. stat. (comprising the subfamilies Brachystomatinae, Ceratomerinae and Trichopezinae), and Dolichopodidae s.lat. The family Microphoridae is not recognized, and the Microphorinae and Parathalassiinae are assigned to the Dolichopodidae s.lat. The Dolichopodidae s.str. includes 15 subfamilies that were previously recognized within the family. Within the Empidoidea we found support for Atelestidae as the sister group to the Hybotidae and for the monophyly of Parathalassiinae + Dolichopodidae s.str. The Empididae remains poorly defined and the genera Homalocnemis Philippi, Iteaphila Zetterstedt, Anthepiscopus Becker, and Oreogeton Schiner are classified as incertae sedis within the                   Empidoidea. In addition, the following higher taxa are proposed: Symballophthalmini n. tribe, Bicellariini n. tribe, Oedaleinae rev. stat., and Trichininae rev. stat., which are all assigned to the Hybotidae. The genus Sematopoda Collin is tentatively assigned to Trichopezinae, and Xanthodromia Saigusa is transferred from Hemerodromiinae to Brachystomatinae.        All morphological characters are extensively discussed and illustrated, including details of the antennae, mouthparts, internal thoracic structures, wings, and male and female terminalia. In addition, a key to families and unplaced genus groups of the Empidoidea is provided. Feeding habits are also discussed in terms of the empidoid ground plan condition.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                05 August 2020
                : 955
                : 147-158
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 00 Praha-Suchdol, Czech Republic Czech University of Life Sciences Prague Czech Republic
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Liliana Kanavalová ( kanavalova@ 123456af.czu.cz )

                Academic editor: Marija Ivković

                Article
                53698
                10.3897/zookeys.955.53698
                7423777
                Liliana Kanavalová, Štěpán Kubík, Miroslav Barták

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Atelestidae
                Brachycera
                Diptera
                Empidoidea
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Systematics
                Europe

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