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Microcirculatory perfusion shows wide inter-individual variation and is important in determining shock reversal during resuscitation in a porcine experimental model of complex traumatic hemorrhagic shock

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      BackgroundTraumatic hemorrhagic shock (THS) is a leading cause of preventable death following severe traumatic injury. Resuscitation of THS is typically targeted at blood pressure, but the effects of such a strategy on systemic and microcirculatory flow remains unclear. Failure to restore microcirculatory perfusion has been shown to lead to poor outcomes in experimental and clinical studies. Systemic and microcirculatory variables were examined in a porcine model of complex THS, in order to investigate inter-individual variations in flow and the effect of microcirculatory perfusion on reversal of the shock state.MethodsBaseline standard microcirculatory variables were obtained for 22 large white pigs using sublingual incident dark field (IDF) video-microscopy. All animals were subjected to a standardised hind-limb injury followed by a controlled haemorrhage of approximately 35 % of blood volume (shock phase). This was followed by 60 min of fluid resuscitation with either 0.9 % saline or component blood products and a target SBP of 80 mmHg (early resuscitation phase). All animals were then given blood products to a target SBP of 110 mmHg for 120 min (mid-resuscitation phase), and a further 100 min (late resuscitation phase). IDF readings were obtained at the midpoint of each of these phases. Cardiac output was measured using a pulmonary artery catheter. Animals were divided into above average (A) and below average (B) perfused vessel density (PVD) groups based on the lowest recorded PVD measurement taken during the shock and early resuscitation phases.ResultsThere was minimal inter-individual variation in blood pressure but wide variation of both systemic and microcirculatory flow variables during resuscitation. During shock and early resuscitation, group A (n = 10) had a mean PVD of 10.5 (SD ± 2.5) mm/mm2 and group B (n = 12) 5.5 (SD ± 4.1) mm/mm2. During the later resuscitation phases, group A maintained a significantly higher PVD than group B. Group A initially had a higher cardiac output, but the difference between the groups narrowed as resuscitation progressed. At the end of resuscitation, group A had significantly lower plasma lactate, higher lactate clearance, lower standard base deficit and smaller mixed venous-arterial CO2 gradient. There was no significant difference in blood pressure between the two groups at any stage.ConclusionThere was a wide variation in both macro- and microcirculatory flow variables in this pressure-targeted experimental model of THS resuscitation. Early changes in microvascular perfusion appear to be key determinants in the reversal of the shock state during resuscitation. Microcirculatory flow parameters may be more reliable markers of physiological insult than pressure-based parameters and are potential targets for goal-directed resuscitation.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40635-016-0088-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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      How to evaluate the microcirculation: report of a round table conference

      Introduction Microvascular alterations may play an important role in the development of organ failure in critically ill patients and especially in sepsis. Recent advances in technology have allowed visualization of the microcirculation, but several scoring systems have been used so it is sometimes difficult to compare studies. This paper reports the results of a round table conference that was organized in Amsterdam in November 2006 in order to achieve consensus on image acquisition and analysis. Methods The participants convened to discuss the various aspects of image acquisition and the different scores, and a consensus statement was drafted using the Delphi methodology. Results The participants identified the following five key points for optimal image acquisition: five sites per organ, avoidance of pressure artifacts, elimination of secretions, adequate focus and contrast adjustment, and recording quality. The scores that can be used to describe numerically the microcirculatory images consist of the following: a measure of vessel density (total and perfused vessel density; two indices of perfusion of the vessels (proportion of perfused vessels and microcirculatory flow index); and a heterogeneity index. In addition, this information should be provided for all vessels and for small vessels (mostly capillaries) identified as smaller than 20 μm. Venular perfusion should be reported as a quality control index, because venules should always be perfused in the absence of pressure artifact. It is anticipated that although this information is currently obtained manually, it is likely that image analysis software will ease analysis in the future. Conclusion We proposed that scoring of the microcirculation should include an index of vascular density, assessment of capillary perfusion and a heterogeneity index.
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        Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries.

        Fluid resuscitation may be detrimental when given before bleeding is controlled in patients with trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of delaying fluid resuscitation until the time of operative intervention in hypotensive patients with penetrating injuries to the torso. We conducted a prospective trial comparing immediate and delayed fluid resuscitation in 598 adults with penetrating torso injuries who presented with a pre-hospital systolic blood pressure of < or = 90 mm Hg. The study setting was a city with a single centralized system of pre-hospital emergency care and a single receiving facility for patients with major trauma. Patients assigned to the immediate-resuscitation group received standard fluid resuscitation before they reached the hospital and in the trauma center, and those assigned to the delayed-resuscitation group received intravenous cannulation but no fluid resuscitation until they reached the operating room. Among the 289 patients who received delayed fluid resuscitation, 203 (70 percent) survived and were discharged from the hospital, as compared with 193 of the 309 patients (62 percent) who received immediate fluid resuscitation (P = 0.04). The mean estimated intraoperative blood loss was similar in the two groups. Among the 238 patients in the delayed-resuscitation group who survived to the postoperative period, 55 (23 percent) had one or more complications (adult respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis syndrome, acute renal failure, coagulopathy, wound infection, and pneumonia), as compared with 69 of the 227 patients (30 percent) in the immediate-resuscitation group (P = 0.08). The duration of hospitalization was shorter in the delayed-resuscitation group. For hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries, delay of aggressive fluid resuscitation until operative intervention improves the outcome.
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          Impact of hemorrhage on trauma outcome: an overview of epidemiology, clinical presentations, and therapeutic considerations.

          The world-wide impact of traumatic injury and associated hemorrhage on human health and well-being cannot be overstated. Twelve percent of the global disease burden is the result of violence or accidental injury. Hemorrhage is responsible for 30 to 40% of trauma mortality, and of these deaths, 33 to 56% occur during the prehospital period. Among those who reach care, early mortality is caused by continued hemorrhage, coagulopathy, and incomplete resuscitation. The techniques of early care, including blood transfusion, may underlie late mortality and long-term morbidity. While the volume of blood lost cannot be measured, physiologic and chemical measures and the number of units of blood given are readily recorded and analyzed. Improvements in early hemorrhage control and resuscitation and the prevention and aggressive treatment of coagulopathy appear to have the greatest potential to improve outcomes in severely injured trauma patients.

            Author and article information

            [ ]Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham Research Park, Vincent Drive, Birmingham, B15 2SQ UK
            [ ]Department of Critical Care, King’s College Hospital London, Denmark Hill, London, SE5 9RS UK
            [ ]Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ UK
            [ ]NIHR Surgical Reconstruction and Microbiology Research Centre, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, B152TH UK
            Intensive Care Med Exp
            Intensive Care Med Exp
            Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
            Springer International Publishing (Cham )
            24 June 2016
            24 June 2016
            December 2016
            : 4
            © Content includes material subject to Crown copyright, Dstl. 2016

            This material is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email:

            Funded by: Ministry of Defence (UK)
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