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Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated neuroprotection in a G2019S Lrrk2 genetic model of Parkinson’s disease

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      Abstract

      Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which genetic and environmental factors synergistically lead to loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Mutation of leucine-rich repeated kinase2 (Lrrk2) genes is responsible for the majority of inherited familial cases of PD and can also be found in sporadic cases. The pathophysiological role of this kinase has to be fully understood yet. Hyperactivation of Lrrk2 kinase domain might represent a predisposing factor for both enhanced striatal glutamatergic release and mitochondrial vulnerability to environmental factors that are observed in PD. To investigate possible alterations of striatal susceptibility to mitochondrial dysfunction, we performed electrophysiological recordings from the nucleus striatum of a G2019S Lrrk2 mouse model of PD, as well as molecular and morphological analyses of G2019S Lrrk2-expressing SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In G2019S mice, we found reduced striatal DA levels, according to the hypothesis of alteration of dopaminergic transmission, and increased loss of field potential induced by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. This detrimental effect is reversed by the D2 DA receptor agonist quinpirole via the inhibition of the cAMP/PKA intracellular pathway. Analysis of mitochondrial functions in G2019S Lrrk2-expressing SH-SY5Y cells revealed strong rotenone-induced oxidative stress characterized by reduced Ca 2+ buffering capability and ATP synthesis, production of reactive oxygen species, and increased mitochondrial fragmentation. Importantly, quinpirole was able to prevent all these changes. We suggest that the G2019S-Lrrk2 mutation is a predisposing factor for enhanced striatal susceptibility to mitochondrial dysfunction induced by exposure to mitochondrial environmental toxins and that the D2 receptor stimulation is neuroprotective on mitochondrial function, via the inhibition of cAMP/PKA intracellular pathway. We suggest new possible neuroprotective strategies for patients carrying this genetic alteration based on drugs specifically targeting Lrrk2 kinase domain and mitochondrial functionality.

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      Chronic systemic pesticide exposure reproduces features of Parkinson's disease.

      The cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown, but epidemiological studies suggest an association with pesticides and other environmental toxins, and biochemical studies implicate a systemic defect in mitochondrial complex I. We report that chronic, systemic inhibition of complex I by the lipophilic pesticide, rotenone, causes highly selective nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration that is associated behaviorally with hypokinesia and rigidity. Nigral neurons in rotenone-treated rats accumulate fibrillar cytoplasmic inclusions that contain ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein. These results indicate that chronic exposure to a common pesticide can reproduce the anatomical, neurochemical, behavioral and neuropathological features of PD.
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        Pharmacological treatment of Parkinson disease: a review.

        Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. Although no available therapies alter the underlying neurodegenerative process, symptomatic therapies can improve patient quality of life. To provide an evidence-based review of the initial pharmacological management of the classic motor symptoms of Parkinson disease; describe management of medication-related motor complications (such as motor fluctuations and dyskinesia), and other medication adverse effects (nausea, psychosis, and impulse control disorders and related behaviors); and discuss the management of selected nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, cognitive impairment, depression, orthostatic hypotension, and sialorrhea. References were identified using searches of PubMed between January 1985 and February 2014 for English-language human studies and the full database of the Cochrane Library. The classification of studies by quality (classes I-IV) was assessed using the levels of evidence guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology and the highest-quality data for each topic. Although levodopa is the most effective medication available for treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease, in certain instances (eg, mild symptoms, tremor as the only or most prominent symptom, aged <60 years) other medications (eg, monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors [MAOBIs], amantadine, anticholinergics, β-blockers, or dopamine agonists) may be initiated first to avoid levodopa-related motor complications. Motor fluctuations may be managed by modifying the levodopa dosing regimen or by adding several other medications, such as MAOBIs, catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, or dopamine agonists. Impulse control disorders are typically managed by reducing or withdrawing dopaminergic medication, particularly dopamine agonists. Evidence-based management of some nonmotor symptoms is limited by a paucity of high-quality positive studies. Strong evidence supports using levodopa and dopamine agonists for motor symptoms at all stages of Parkinson disease. Dopamine agonists and drugs that block dopamine metabolism are effective for motor fluctuations and clozapine is effective for hallucinations. Cholinesterase inhibitors may improve symptoms of dementia and antidepressants and pramipexole may improve depression. Evidence supporting other therapies for motor and nonmotor features is less well established.
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          Loss of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 causes impairment of protein degradation pathways, accumulation of alpha-synuclein, and apoptotic cell death in aged mice.

          Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 is a large protein containing a small GTPase domain and a kinase domain, but its physiological role is unknown. To identify the normal function of LRRK2 in vivo, we generated two independent lines of germ-line deletion mice. The dopaminergic system of LRRK2(-/-) mice appears normal, and numbers of dopaminergic neurons and levels of striatal dopamine are unchanged. However, LRRK2(-/-) kidneys, which suffer the greatest loss of LRRK compared with other organs, develop striking accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein and ubiquitinated proteins at 20 months of age. The autophagy-lysosomal pathway is also impaired in the absence of LRRK2, as indicated by accumulation of lipofuscin granules as well as altered levels of LC3-II and p62. Furthermore, loss of LRRK2 dramatically increases apoptotic cell death, inflammatory responses, and oxidative damage. Collectively, our findings show that LRRK2 plays an essential and unexpected role in the regulation of protein homeostasis during aging, and suggest that LRRK2 mutations may cause Parkinson's disease and cell death via impairment of protein degradation pathways, leading to alpha-synuclein accumulation and aggregation over time.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0692 3437, GRID grid.417778.a, Santa Lucia Foundation IRCCS, ; Rome, Italy
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 3630, GRID grid.9027.c, Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Physiology and Biochemistry, , University of Perugia, ; Perugia, Italy
            [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 3630, GRID grid.9027.c, Neurological clinic, Department of Medicine, , University of Perugia, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, ; Perugia, Italy
            [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 2064, GRID grid.8484.0, Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, , University of Ferrara, ; Ferrara, Italy
            [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 2064, GRID grid.8484.0, Department of Medical Sciences, , University of Ferrara, ; Ferrara, Italy
            Contributors
            +39 075 578 4230 , paolo.calabresi@unipg.it
            Journal
            Cell Death Dis
            Cell Death Dis
            Cell Death & Disease
            Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
            2041-4889
            12 February 2018
            12 February 2018
            February 2018
            : 9
            : 2
            29434188 5833812 221 10.1038/s41419-017-0221-2
            © The Author(s) 2018

            Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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            © The Author(s) 2018

            Cell biology

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