Proinflammatory cytokines are essential mediators and indicators of an inflammatory process occurring in the body. Their physiological role is to stimulate the immune response, yet their excessive propagation and interaction with cells outside the immune system may be linked to the risk of organ damage. This is specifically important in the case of immature tissues of fetuses and prematurely born infants. Analysis of the concentrations of specific cytokines in different compartments makes it possible to assess the risk of premature birth, preterm rupture of the membranes, and to determine an existing intrauterine infection. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the existing research concerning the relationships between the concentrations of specific proinflammatory cytokines in different compartments (maternal blood serum, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, arterial and venous blood, and cerebrospinal fluid of the newborn) and the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and the degree of its severity. The paper takes also into account the assessment of the usefulness of cytokines as biomarkers for IVH and its complications (posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, white matter injury).