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      Scaling laws explain foraminiferal pore patterns

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          Abstract

          Due to climate warming and increased anthropogenic impact, a decrease of ocean water oxygenation is expected in the near future, with major consequences for marine life. In this context, it is essential to develop reliable tools to assess past oxygen concentrations in the ocean, to better forecast these future changes. Recently, foraminiferal pore patterns have been proposed as a bottom water oxygenation proxy, but the parameters controlling foraminiferal pore patterns are still largely unknown. Here we use scaling laws to describe how both gas exchanges (metabolic needs) and mechanical constraints (shell robustness) control foraminiferal pore patterns. The derived mathematical model shows that only specific combinations of pore density and size are physically feasible. Maximum porosity, of about 30%, can only be obtained by simultaneously increasing pore size and decreasing pore density. A large empirical data set of pore data obtained for three pseudocryptic phylotypes of Ammonia, a common intertidal genus from the eastern Atlantic, strongly supports this conclusion. These new findings provide basic mechanistic understanding of the complex controls of foraminiferal pore patterns and give a solid starting point for the development of proxies of past oxygen concentrations based on these morphological features. Pore size and pore density are largely interdependent, and both have to be considered when describing pore patterns.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Benthic foraminifera in oxygen-poor habitats

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            Benthic foraminiferal dissolved-oxygen index and dissolved-oxygen levels in the modern ocean

             Kunio Kaiho (1994)
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              Temperature and salinity limits for growth and survival of some planktonic foraminifers in laboratory cultures

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                richirt.julien@gmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                24 June 2019
                24 June 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2248 3363, GRID grid.7252.2, UMR 6112 LPG-BIAF Recent and Fossil Bio-Indicators, , Angers University, ; 2 Bd Lavoisier, F-49045 Angers, France
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2194 6047, GRID grid.434207.6, LAMPA, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, 2 Bd du Ronceray, BP 93525, 49035, ; Angers, Cedex 01 France
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8580 3777, GRID grid.6190.e, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, , University of Cologne, ; Zülpicher Str. 49a, 50674 Cologne, Germany
                Article
                45617
                10.1038/s41598-019-45617-x
                6591427
                31235827
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                marine biology, palaeoceanography

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