The k nearest neighbor (kNN) approach is a simple and effective nonparametric algorithm for classification. One of the drawbacks of kNN is that the method can only give coarse estimates of class probabilities, particularly for low values of k. To avoid this drawback, we propose a new nonparametric classification method based on nearest neighbors conditional on each class: the proposed approach calculates the distance between a new instance and the kth nearest neighbor from each class, estimates posterior probabilities of class memberships using the distances, and assigns the instance to the class with the largest posterior. We prove that the proposed approach converges to the Bayes classifier as the size of the training data increases. Further, we extend the proposed approach to an ensemble method. Experiments on benchmark data sets show that both the proposed approach and the ensemble version of the proposed approach on average outperform kNN, weighted kNN, probabilistic kNN and two similar algorithms (LMkNN and MLM-kHNN) in terms of the error rate. A simulation shows that kCNN may be useful for estimating posterior probabilities when the class distributions overlap.