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      Effects of pre-training using serious game technology on CPR performance – an exploratory quasi-experimental transfer study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Multiplayer virtual world (MVW) technology creates opportunities to practice medical procedures and team interactions using serious game software. This study aims to explore medical students’ retention of knowledge and skills as well as their proficiency gain after pre-training using a MVW with avatars for cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) team training.

          Methods

          Three groups of pre-clinical medical students, n = 30, were assessed and further trained using a high fidelity full-scale medical simulator: Two groups were pre-trained 6 and 18 months before assessment. A reference control group consisting of matched peers had no MVW pre-training. The groups consisted of 8, 12 and 10 subjects, respectively. The session started and ended with assessment scenarios, with 3 training scenarios in between. All scenarios were video-recorded for analysis of CPR performance.

          Results

          The 6 months group displayed greater CPR-related knowledge than the control group, 93 (±11)% compared to 65 (±28)% (p < 0.05), the 18 months group scored in between (73 (±23)%).

          At start the pre-trained groups adhered better to guidelines than the control group; mean violations 0.2 (±0.5), 1.5 (±1.0) and 4.5 (±1.0) for the 6 months, 18 months and control group respectively. Likewise, in the 6 months group no chest compression cycles were delivered at incorrect frequencies whereas 54 (±44)% in the control group (p < 0.05) and 44 (±49)% in 18 months group where incorrectly paced; differences that disappeared during training.

          Conclusions

          This study supports the beneficial effects of MVW-CPR team training with avatars as a method for pre-training, or repetitive training, on CPR-skills among medical students.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Chest compression fraction determines survival in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation.

          Quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation contributes to cardiac arrest survival. The proportion of time in which chest compressions are performed in each minute of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an important modifiable aspect of quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We sought to estimate the effect of an increasing proportion of time spent performing chest compressions during cardiac arrest on survival to hospital discharge in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. This is a prospective observational cohort study of adult patients from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Cardiac Arrest Epistry with confirmed ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia, no defibrillation before emergency medical services arrival, electronically recorded cardiopulmonary resuscitation before the first shock, and a confirmed outcome. Patients were followed up to discharge from the hospital or death. Of the 506 cases, the mean age was 64 years, 80% were male, 71% were witnessed by a bystander, 51% received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 34% occurred in a public location, and 23% survived. After adjustment for age, gender, location, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, bystander witness status, and response time, the odds ratios of surviving to hospital discharge in the 2 highest categories of chest compression fraction compared with the reference category were 3.01 (95% confidence interval 1.37 to 6.58) and 2.33 (95% confidence interval 0.96 to 5.63). The estimated adjusted linear effect on odds ratio of survival for a 10% change in chest compression fraction was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.21). An increased chest compression fraction is independently predictive of better survival in patients who experience a prehospital ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia cardiac arrest.
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            Part 1: Executive summary: 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations.

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              CPR quality improvement during in-hospital cardiac arrest using a real-time audiovisual feedback system.

              Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality during actual cardiac arrest has been found to be deficient in several recent investigations. We hypothesized that real-time feedback during CPR would improve the performance of chest compressions and ventilations during in-hospital cardiac arrest. An investigational monitor/defibrillator with CPR-sensing and feedback capabilities was used during in-hospital cardiac arrests from December 2004 to December 2005. Chest compression and ventilation characteristics were recorded and quantified for the first 5 min of resuscitation and compared to a baseline cohort of arrest episodes without feedback, from December 2002 to April 2004. Data from 55 resuscitation episodes in the baseline pre-intervention group were compared to 101 resuscitations in the feedback intervention group. There was a trend toward improvement in the mean values of CPR variables in the feedback group with a statistically significant narrowing of CPR variable distributions including chest compression rate (104+/-18 to 100+/-13 min(-1); test of means, p=0.16; test of variance, p=0.003) and ventilation rate (20+/-10 to 18+/-8 min(-1); test of means, p=0.12; test of variance, p=0.04). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in either return of spontaneous circulation or survival to hospital discharge. Real-time CPR-sensing and feedback technology modestly improved the quality of CPR during in-hospital cardiac arrest, and may serve as a useful adjunct for rescuers during resuscitation efforts. However, feedback specifics should be optimized for maximal benefit and additional studies will be required to assess whether gains in CPR quality translate to improvements in survival.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med
                Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med
                Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
                BioMed Central
                1757-7241
                2012
                6 December 2012
                : 20
                : 79
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, K32, Stockholm, 141 86, Sweden
                [2 ]Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
                [3 ]Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
                Article
                1757-7241-20-79
                10.1186/1757-7241-20-79
                3546885
                23217084
                Copyright ©2012 Creutzfeldt et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Research

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