6
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Climatic shocks associate with innovation in science and technology

      1 , 2 , * , 3

      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Human history is shaped by landmark discoveries in science and technology. However, across both time and space the rate of innovation is erratic: Periods of relative inertia alternate with bursts of creative science and rapid cascades of technological innovations. While the origins of the rise and fall in rates of discovery and innovation remain poorly understood, they may reflect adaptive responses to exogenously emerging threats and pressures. Here we examined this possibility by fitting annual rates of scientific discovery and technological innovation to climatic variability and its associated economic pressures and resource scarcity. In time-series data from Europe (1500–1900CE), we indeed found that rates of innovation are higher during prolonged periods of cold (versus warm) surface temperature and during the presence (versus absence) of volcanic dust veils. This negative temperature–innovation link was confirmed in annual time-series for France, Germany, and the United Kingdom (1901–1965CE). Combined, across almost 500 years and over 5,000 documented innovations and discoveries, a 0.5°C increase in temperature associates with a sizable 0.30–0.60 standard deviation decrease in innovation. Results were robust to controlling for fluctuations in population size. Furthermore, and consistent with economic theory and micro-level data on group innovation, path analyses revealed that the relation between harsher climatic conditions between 1500–1900CE and more innovation is mediated by climate-induced economic pressures and resource scarcity.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 44

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          European seasonal and annual temperature variability, trends, and extremes since 1500.

          Multiproxy reconstructions of monthly and seasonal surface temperature fields for Europe back to 1500 show that the late 20th- and early 21st-century European climate is very likely (>95% confidence level) warmer than that of any time during the past 500 years. This agrees with findings for the entire Northern Hemisphere. European winter average temperatures during the period 1500 to 1900 were reduced by approximately 0.5 degrees C (0.25 degrees C for annual mean temperatures) compared to the 20th century. Summer temperatures did not experience systematic century-scale cooling relative to present conditions. The coldest European winter was 1708/1709; 2003 was by far the hottest summer.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Location, Competition, and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy

             M E Porter (2000)
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                24 January 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
                [2 ] Center for Experimental Economics and Political Decision Making, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [3 ] Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                College of Agricultural Sciences, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-01641
                10.1371/journal.pone.0190122
                5783359
                29364910
                © 2018 De Dreu, van Dijk

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Pages: 16
                Product
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Grasses
                Wheat
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Material Properties
                Surface Properties
                Surface Temperature
                People and Places
                Geographical Locations
                Europe
                Earth Sciences
                Natural Disasters
                Volcanoes
                Earth Sciences
                Geology
                Volcanology
                Volcanoes
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Materials by Structure
                Dust
                Earth Sciences
                Atmospheric Science
                Climatology
                Paleoclimatology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Paleontology
                Paleoclimatology
                Earth Sciences
                Paleontology
                Paleoclimatology
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                Europe
                European Union
                France
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                Europe
                European Union
                Germany
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data and computing scripts are within the manuscript and Supporting Information Files.

                Uncategorized

                Comments

                Comment on this article