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      Biofilms: Survival and defense strategy for pathogens.

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          Abstract

          Studies on biofilm related infections are gaining prominence owing to their involvement in majority of clinical infections. Biofilm, considered as a generic mechanism for survival used by pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic microorganisms, involves surface attachment and growth of heterogeneous cells encapsulated within a matrix. The matrix provides ecological niche where partnership of cells endows a community like behaviour that not only enables the cohort to survive local microenvironment stress but also channelizes them to evolve, disseminate and cause resurgence of infections. In this mini-review we highlight the mechanisms used by microbes to develop and sustain biofilms, including the influence of the microbiota. Several strategies to target biofilms have been validated on certain groups of microorganisms and these basically target different stages in the life cycle of biofilm, however comprehensive methods to target microbial biofilms are relatively unknown. In the backdrop of recent reports suggesting that biofilms can harbour multiple species of organisms, we need to relook and devise newer strategies against biofilms. Effective anti-biofilm strategies cannot be confined to a single methodology that can disrupt one pathway but should simultaneously target the various routes adopted by the microorganisms for survival within their ecosystem. An overview of the currently available drugs, their mode of action, genomic targets and translational therapies against biofilm related infection are discussed.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Int. J. Med. Microbiol.
          International journal of medical microbiology : IJMM
          Elsevier BV
          1618-0607
          1438-4221
          Dec 2017
          : 307
          : 8
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Molecular Infection and Functional Biology Lab, Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, New Delhi, India.
          [2 ] School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
          [3 ] National Institute of Pathology, Safdarjang Hospital Campus, New Delhi, India.
          [4 ] Molecular Infection and Functional Biology Lab, Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, New Delhi, India; JH-Institute of Molecular Medicine, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India; Dr Reddy's Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad, India. Electronic address: seyedhasnain@gmail.com.
          Article
          S1438-4221(17)30028-0
          10.1016/j.ijmm.2017.09.016
          28950999

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