We studied the outcome of renal transplantation in 30 patients with primary focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and in 30 controls in whom renal failure was secondary to nonglomerular renal diseases. All patients received living-related-donor kidneys, and the majority had one-haplotype HLA matching. Within the follow-up period, the mean serum creatinine values were significantly higher in FSGS recipients as compared with the control group (p = 0.02). However, the frequency of acute rejection episodes and the mean blood pressure values were not significantly different between the two groups. There was a tendency of a higher incidence of proteinuria among FSGS recipients in comparison with the controls. Moreover, nephrotic-range proteinuria occurred only in 3 recipients of the FSGS group. Recurrence of FSGS was morphologically documented in 2 recipients 7 and 18 months, respectively, after transplantation. It is concluded that FSGS as the primary disease has a negligible impact on the living-related-donor kidney transplantation in the Egyptian population. Therefore, this disease should not discourage transplantation for this group of patients.