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      Kava root extracts hinder prostate cancer development and tumorigenesis by involvement of dual inhibition of MAO-A and LSD1


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          Here, we aim to evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of kava root extracts (KRE) in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice and investigate potential molecular targets of kavalactones, the main components of kava.


          TRAMP mice were administrated with KRE formulated food for different periods of time, and then the incidences of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) and adenocarcinomas and tumor burdens were compared between vehicle control and KRE food fed groups. In addition, the inhibitory effect of the KRE and kavalactones on monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) enzyme activities were examined by commercially available inhibitor screening kits. Histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation was also evaluated in prostate cancer cells and tumor tissues using Western blotting analysis.


          Dietary feeding of 0.3% and 0.6% KRE to TRAMP mice from ages of 6 weeks to 12 weeks inhibited HG-PIN by 43.5% and 59.7%, respectively, and prostate adenocarcinoma by 53.5% and 66.4%, respectively. In addition, 0.6% KRE fed TRAMP mice from ages of 6 weeks to 24 weeks exhibited a significant reduction of genitourinary weight (a surrogate of tumor burden) by 54.5% and reduced body weight gain. Furthermore, the KRE and kavalactones showed a significant inhibition of LSD1 and MAO-A enzyme activities.


          Our results suggest that consumption of kava products through diet can delay prostate cancer development and progression and that kavalactones may be a new structure model for developing a potent dual inhibitor of LSD1 and MAO-A.

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          LSD1 demethylates repressive histone marks to promote androgen-receptor-dependent transcription.

          Gene regulation in eukaryotes requires the coordinate interaction of chromatin-modulating proteins with specific transcription factors such as the androgen receptor. Gene activation and repression is specifically regulated by histone methylation status at distinct lysine residues. Here we show that lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1; also known as BHC110) co-localizes with the androgen receptor in normal human prostate and prostate tumour. LSD1 interacts with androgen receptor in vitro and in vivo, and stimulates androgen-receptor-dependent transcription. Conversely, knockdown of LSD1 protein levels abrogates androgen-induced transcriptional activation and cell proliferation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that androgen receptor and LSD1 form chromatin-associated complexes in a ligand-dependent manner. LSD1 relieves repressive histone marks by demethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3-K9), thereby leading to de-repression of androgen receptor target genes. Furthermore, we identify pargyline as an inhibitor of LSD1. Pargyline blocks demethylation of H3-K9 by LSD1 and consequently androgen-receptor-dependent transcription. Thus, modulation of LSD1 activity offers a new strategy to regulate androgen receptor functions. Here, we link demethylation of a repressive histone mark with androgen-receptor-dependent gene activation, thus providing a mechanism by which demethylases control specific gene expression.
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            Prostate pathology of genetically engineered mice: definitions and classification. The consensus report from the Bar Harbor meeting of the Mouse Models of Human Cancer Consortium Prostate Pathology Committee.

            The Pathological Classification of Prostate Lesions in Genetically Engineered Mice (GEM) is the result of a directive from the National Cancer Institute Mouse Models of Human Cancer Consortium Prostate Steering Committee to provide a hierarchical taxonomy of disorders of the mouse prostate to facilitate classification of existing and newly created mouse models and the translation to human prostate pathology. The proposed Bar Harbor Classification system is the culmination of three meetings and workshops attended by various members of the Prostate Pathology Committee of the Mouse Models of Human Cancer Consortium. A 2-day Pathology Workshop was held at The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine, in October 2001, in which study sets of 93 slides from 22 GEM models were provided to individual panel members. The comparison of mouse and human prostate anatomy and disease demonstrates significant differences and considerable similarities that bear on the interpretation of the origin and natural history of their diseases. The recommended classification of mouse prostate pathology is hierarchical, and includes developmental, inflammatory, benign proliferative, and neoplastic disorders. Among the neoplastic disorders, preinvasive, microinvasive, and poorly differentiated neoplasms received the most attention. Specific criteria were recommended and will be discussed. Transitions between neoplastic states were of particular concern. Preinvasive neoplasias of the mouse prostate were recognized as focal, atypical, and progressive lesions. These lesions were designated as mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN). Some atypical lesions were identified in mouse models without evidence of progression to malignancy. The panel recommended that mPIN lesions not be given histological grades, but that mPIN be further classified as to the absence or presence of documented associated progression to invasive carcinoma. Criteria for recognizing microinvasion, for classification of invasive gland-forming adenocarcinomas, and for characterizing poorly differentiated tumors, including neuroendocrine carcinomas, were developed and are discussed. The uniform application of defined terminology is essential for correlating results between different laboratories and models. It is recommended that investigators use the Bar Harbor Classification system when characterizing new GEM models or when conducting experimental interventions that may alter the phenotype or natural history of lesion progression in existing models.
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              LSD1 activates a lethal prostate cancer gene network independently of its demethylase function

              Medical castration or interference with androgen receptor (AR) function is the principal treatment for advanced prostate cancer. However, progression is universal, and therapies following the emergence of castration resistance do not offer durable control of the disease. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is an important regulator of gene expression, including in cancer. Here, we show that LSD1 is highly expressed in tumors of patients with lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and that LSD1 promotes AR-independent survival in CRPC cells in a noncanonical, demethylase-independent manner. We determined that the drug SP-2509 acts as an allosteric inhibitor of LSD1–blocking demethylase-independent functions. Our demonstration of tumor suppression with this inhibitor in CRPC preclinical models provides the rationale for clinical trials with LSD1 inhibitors. Medical castration that interferes with androgen receptor (AR) function is the principal treatment for advanced prostate cancer. However, clinical progression is universal, and tumors with AR-independent resistance mechanisms appear to be increasing in frequency. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop new treatments targeting molecular pathways enriched in lethal prostate cancer. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a histone demethylase and an important regulator of gene expression. Here, we show that LSD1 promotes the survival of prostate cancer cells, including those that are castration-resistant, independently of its demethylase function and of the AR. Importantly, this effect is explained in part by activation of a lethal prostate cancer gene network in collaboration with LSD1’s binding protein, ZNF217. Finally, that a small-molecule LSD1 inhibitor―SP-2509―blocks important demethylase-independent functions and suppresses castration-resistant prostate cancer cell viability demonstrates the potential of LSD1 inhibition in this disease.

                Author and article information

                J Transl Genet Genom
                J Transl Genet Genom
                Journal of translational genetics and genomics
                28 July 2021
                28 May 2021
                05 August 2021
                : 5
                : 163-172
                [1 ]Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine, Orang, CA 92868, USA.
                [2 ]Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Orange, CA 92868, USA.
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92617, USA.
                Author notes

                Authors’ contributions

                Conceived and designed study: Uchio E, Zi X

                Analysed and interpreted data: Uchio E, Zi X

                Drafted and revised the manuscript: Uchio E, Zi X

                Performed experiments and the statistical analyses: Li X, Song L, Xu S, Tippin M, Meng S, Xie J

                All authors read and approved the manuscript.

                Correspondence to: Prof. Xiaolin Zi, Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine, 101 The City Drive South, Rt.81 Bldg.55 Rm.204, Orange, CA 92868, USA. xzi@ 123456uci.edu

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, for any purpose, even commercially, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.


                kava, chemoprevention, lsd1, mao-a


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