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      Nitric Oxide regulates mouth development in amphioxus

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          Abstract

          The development of the mouth in animals has fascinated researchers for decades, and a recent study proposed the modern view of recurrent evolution of protostomy and deuterostomy. Here we expanded our knowledge about conserved traits of mouth formation in chordates, testing the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) is a potential regulator of this process. In the present work we show for the first time that NO is an essential cell signaling molecule for cephalochordate mouth formation, as previously shown for vertebrates, indicating its conserved ancestral role in chordates. The experimental decrease of NO during early amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum development impaired the formation of the mouth and gill slits, demonstrating that it is a prerequisite in pharyngeal morphogenesis. Our results represent the first step in the understanding of NO physiology in non-vertebrate chordates, opening new evolutionary perspectives into the ancestral importance of NO homeostasis and acquisition of novel biological roles during evolution.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Using GeneWise in the Drosophila annotation experiment.

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          The GeneWise method for combining gene prediction and homology searches was applied to the 2.9-Mb region from Drosophila melanogaster. The results from the Genome Annotation Assessment Project (GASP) showed that GeneWise provided reasonably accurate gene predictions. Further investigation indicates that many of the incorrect gene predictions from GeneWise were due to transposons with valid protein-coding genes and the remaining cases are pseudogenes or possible annotation oversights.
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            Nitric oxide synthases: properties and catalytic mechanism.

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              Neuronal nitric oxide synthase: structure, subcellular localization, regulation, and clinical implications.

              Nitric oxide (NO), a free gaseous signaling molecule, is involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular, nervous and immune system. The neurotransmitter function of nitric oxide is dependent on dynamic regulation of its biosynthetic enzyme, nitric oxide synthase (NOS). There are three types of NOS, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Of the three NOS, we focus on nNOS in the present review. Brain nNOS exists in particulate and soluble forms and the differential subcellular localization of nNOS may contribute to its diverse functions. Proteins bearing PDZ domains can interact directly with the PDZ domain of nNOS, influencing the subcellular distribution and/or activity of the enzyme. During the past several years, an increasing number of reports have demonstrated the importance of nNOS in a variety of synaptic signaling events. nNOS has been implicated in modulating physiological functions such as learning, memory, and neurogenesis, as well as being involved in a number of human diseases. In this review we concentrate on recent findings regarding the structural features, subcellular localization and factors regulating nNOS function. In particular, we conclude with a section discussing the role of nNOS in a wide range of physiological and pathological conditions.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                salvatore.daniello@szn.it
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                16 August 2017
                16 August 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn di Napoli, Villa Comunale 1, 80121 Napoli, Italy
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000094465255, GRID grid.7597.c, , Evolutionary Morphology Laboratory, RIKEN, ; Minatojima-minami 2-2-3, 650-0047 Kobe Hyogo, Japan
                [3 ]RIMAR, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn di Napoli, Villa Comunale 1, 80121 Napoli, Italy
                Article
                8157
                10.1038/s41598-017-08157-w
                5559612
                28814726
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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