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      Validation of lung density indices by cardiac CT for quantification of lung emphysema

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          Cardiovascular disease is often associated with COPD. Lung density quantification of images obtained from cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans would allow simultaneous evaluation of emphysema and coronary artery calcification score and provide further mechanistic insight into the relationship between these syndromes.

          Patients and methods

          We assessed the agreement between lung density indices obtained by cardiac and full-lung CT scans. Paired cardiac and chest CT scans were assessed in 156 individuals with and without airflow limitation. Quantitative threshold indices of low attenuation area (LAA) and 15th percentile density index (PD15) were compared in terms of precision using Spearman’s correlation coefficient, accuracy using concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and relative accuracy using P15 and P30. We also assessed the relationship between visually and quantitatively determined emphysema and used receiver operating characteristic curves to evaluate the ability of lung density indices to discriminate airflow limitation.


          Correlation coefficients between lung density indices obtained from cardiac and chest CT scans were 0.49 for percent LAA (%LAA)-950 and 0.71 for PD15. Corresponding values for CCC, P15, and P30 were 0.33, 3.2, and 5.1, respectively, for %LAA-950, and 0.34, 17.3, and 37.8, respectively, for PD15. For both cardiac and chest CT scans, visually determined emphysema was associated with higher %LAA-950 and lower PD15, and the ability of %LAA-950 and PD15 to discriminate airflow limitation were comparable.


          Although chest CT imaging is preferable, cardiac CT imaging may also be used for lung emphysema quantification where association measures are of primary interest.

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          Most cited references 25

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          A concordance correlation coefficient to evaluate reproducibility.

           Aigu L. Lin (1989)
          A new reproducibility index is developed and studied. This index is the correlation between the two readings that fall on the 45 degree line through the origin. It is simple to use and possesses desirable properties. The statistical properties of this estimate can be satisfactorily evaluated using an inverse hyperbolic tangent transformation. A Monte Carlo experiment with 5,000 runs was performed to confirm the estimate's validity. An application using actual data is given.
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            Coronary calcium as a predictor of coronary events in four racial or ethnic groups.

            In white populations, computed tomographic measurements of coronary-artery calcium predict coronary heart disease independently of traditional coronary risk factors. However, it is not known whether coronary-artery calcium predicts coronary heart disease in other racial or ethnic groups. We collected data on risk factors and performed scanning for coronary calcium in a population-based sample of 6722 men and women, of whom 38.6% were white, 27.6% were black, 21.9% were Hispanic, and 11.9% were Chinese. The study subjects had no clinical cardiovascular disease at entry and were followed for a median of 3.8 years. There were 162 coronary events, of which 89 were major events (myocardial infarction or death from coronary heart disease). In comparison with participants with no coronary calcium, the adjusted risk of a coronary event was increased by a factor of 7.73 among participants with coronary calcium scores between 101 and 300 and by a factor of 9.67 among participants with scores above 300 (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Among the four racial and ethnic groups, a doubling of the calcium score increased the risk of a major coronary event by 15 to 35% and the risk of any coronary event by 18 to 39%. The areas under the receiver-operating-characteristic curves for the prediction of both major coronary events and any coronary event were higher when the calcium score was added to the standard risk factors. The coronary calcium score is a strong predictor of incident coronary heart disease and provides predictive information beyond that provided by standard risk factors in four major racial and ethnic groups in the United States. No major differences among racial and ethnic groups in the predictive value of calcium scores were detected. Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Prevalence and outcomes of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease in COPD.

              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with important chronic comorbid diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension. The present study analysed data from 20,296 subjects aged > or =45 yrs at baseline in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). The sample was stratified based on baseline lung function data, according to modified Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. Comorbid disease at baseline and death and hospitalisations over a 5-yr follow-up were then searched for. Lung function impairment was found to be associated with more comorbid disease. In logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, body mass index and education, subjects with GOLD stage 3 or 4 COPD had a higher prevalence of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.9), hypertension (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.0). Comorbid disease was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality that was worse in people with impaired lung function. Lung function impairment is associated with a higher risk of comorbid disease, which contributes to a higher risk of adverse outcomes of mortality and hospitalisations.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                11 October 2018
                : 13
                : 3321-3330
                [1 ]Department of Infectious Diseases 8632, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, andreas.ronit@
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [3 ]Department of Clinical Biochemistry and the Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark
                [4 ]Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [5 ]Department of Public Health, Section of Social Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [6 ]Medical Unit, Respiratory Section, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark
                [7 ]Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [8 ]Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Andreas Ronit, Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9B, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark, Tel +45 3 545 7565, Fax +45 3 545 6648, Email andreas.ronit@
                © 2018 Ronit et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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