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      Long-term oestrogen treatment does not alter systemic arterial compliance and haemodynamics in biological males :

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          Effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on the concentrations and metabolism of plasma lipoproteins.

          Postmenopausal estrogen-replacement therapy may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, and this beneficial effect may be mediated in part by favorable changes in plasma lipid levels. However, the effects on plasma lipoprotein levels of postmenopausal estrogens in the low doses currently used have not been precisely quantified, and the mechanism of these effects is unknown. We conducted two randomized, double-blind crossover studies in healthy postmenopausal women who had normal lipid values at base line. In study 1, 31 women received placebo and conjugated estrogens at two doses (0.625 mg and 1.25 mg per day), each treatment for three months. In study 2, nine women received placebo, oral micronized estradiol (2 mg per day), and transdermal estradiol (0.1 mg twice a week), each treatment for six weeks. The metabolism of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured by endogenously labeling their protein component, apolipoprotein B. In study 1, the conjugated estrogens at doses of 0.625 mg per day and 1.25 mg per day decreased the mean LDL cholesterol level by 15 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 11 to 19 percent; P less than 0.0001) and 19 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 15 to 23 percent; P less than 0.0001), respectively; increased the HDL cholesterol level by 16 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 12 to 20 percent; P less than 0.0001) and 18 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14 to 22 percent; P less than 0.0001), respectively; and increased VLDL triglyceride levels by 24 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 8 to 40 percent; P less than 0.003) and 42 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 26 to 58 percent; P less than 0.0001), respectively. In study 2, oral estradiol increased the mean concentration of large VLDL apolipoprotein B by 30 +/- 10 percent (P = 0.05) by increasing its production rate by 82 +/- 18 percent (P less than 0.01). Most of this additional large VLDL was cleared directly from the circulation and was not converted to small VLDL or LDL. Oral estradiol reduced LDL cholesterol concentrations by 14 +/- 3 percent (P less than 0.005), because LDL catabolism increased by 36 +/- 7 percent (P less than 0.005). The oral estradiol increased the HDL cholesterol level by 15 +/- 2 percent (P less than 0.0001). Transdermal estradiol had no effect. The postmenopausal use of oral estrogens in low doses favorably alters LDL and HDL levels that may protect women against atherosclerosis, while minimizing potentially adverse effects on triglyceride levels. The decrease in LDL levels results from accelerated LDL catabolism; the increase in triglyceride levels results from increased production of large, triglyceride-rich VLDL.
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            Elastic properties and Windkessel function of the human aorta.

             G Belz (1995)
            An understanding of the role of the aortic elastic properties indicates their relevance at several sites of cardiovascular function. Acting as an elastic buffering chamber behind the heart (the Windkessel function), the aorta and some of the proximal large vessels store about 50% of the left ventricular stroke volume during systole. In diastole, the elastic forces of the aortic wall forward this 50% of the volume to the peripheral circulation, thus creating a nearly continuous peripheral blood flow. This systolic-diastolic interplay represents the Windkessel function, which has an influence not only on the peripheral circulation but also on the heart, resulting in a reduction of left ventricular afterload and improvement in coronary blood flow and left ventricular relaxation. The elastic resistance (or stiffness), which the aorta sets against its systolic distention, increases with aging, with an increase in blood pressure, and with pathological changes such as atherosclerosis. This increased stiffness leads to an increase in systolic blood pressure and a decrease in diastolic blood pressure at any given mean pressure, an increase in systolic blood velocity, an increase in left ventricular afterload, and a decrease in subendocardial blood supply during diastole, and must be considered a major pathophysiological factor, for example, in systolic hypertension. The elastic properties of the aortic Windkessel can be assessed in vivo in humans in several ways, most easily by measuring the pulse wave velocity along the aorta. The higher this velocity, the higher the elastic resistance, that is, the stiffness. Other methods depend on assessment of the ratio between pulse pressure and aortic volume changes (delata P/delta V), which can be assessed noninvasively by ultrasonic or tomographic methods. All assessments of vessel stiffness have to take into account the direct effect of current blood pressure, and thus judgements about influences of interventions rely on an unchanged blood pressure. Alternatively, to derive the "intrinsic" stiffness of the aortic wall one has to correct for the effect of the blood pressure present. Recently reports about pharmacologic influences on the elastic properties of the aorta have emerged in the literature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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              Association between high heart rate and high arterial rigidity in normotensive and hypertensive subjects.

              The dynamic elastic modulus of central arteries is very frequency-dependent Although resting heart rate is a potent independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality both from cardiovascular and from noncardiovascular disease, no link between tachycardia and arterial stiffness has ever been established. To relate arterial stiffness to heart rate in a population with relatively low cardiovascular risk. Pulse-wave velocity measurements and high-resolution echo-tracking techniques were used to determine the degree of arterial distension (of carotid and femoral arteries, and terminal aorta) and the velocity of the pulse wave (aorta and upper and lower limbs) at the same time as heart rate, in members of a large population of normotensive and hypertensive subjects in a multicenter study in Paris, Fleury-Merogis and Grenoble (France). A high heart rate was strongly associated with reduced distension and elevated pulse-wave velocity, even after adjustment for age and blood pressure. A high aortic pulse-wave velocity was also negatively associated with a low baroreflex sensitivity. The most significant associations between high heart rate and high arterial rigidity were found for the carotid artery, the thoracic aorta, and the lower limbs, but there was no significant result for the terminal aorta and the arm arteries. This study demonstrates that there is a statistically significant positive link between high heart rate and high arterial stiffness measured at the site of central and lower limb arteries. Since an elevated heart rate has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular risk, such findings may be relevant for future cardiovascular studies in epidemiology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Coronary Artery Disease
                Coronary Artery Disease
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0954-6928
                2000
                May 2000
                : 11
                : 3
                : 253-259
                Article
                10.1097/00019501-200005000-00008
                © 2000

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