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      Chewing Difficulty Should be Included as a Geriatric Syndrome

      research-article

      1 , 2 , * , 2 , 1 , 2

      Nutrients

      MDPI

      chewing difficulty, frailty, primary care, geriatric syndrome, oral health

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          Abstract

          Recent studies have noted an association between chewing difficulties and frailty. In a pilot survey of primary care needs of older people living in the community using automated methods, we examined the prevalence of chewing difficulties and the cross-sectional association with other geriatric syndromes, chronic diseases, and the use of hospital services. A brief multi-domain geriatric assessment was administered to 2259 men and women using a mobile device, the data uploaded to the cloud and analyzed. A total of 37.8% had chewing difficulties, which were associated with older age, poor vision, frailty, sarcopenia, memory complaints, low subjective well-being, incontinence, and stroke. The results suggest that chewing difficulties should be included as a geriatric syndrome and should be included in primary care screening of geriatric syndromes as well as chronic diseases.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Frailty Screening in the Community Using the FRAIL Scale.

          To explore the feasibility of using the FRAIL scale in community screening of older Chinese people aged 65 years and older, followed by clinical validation by comprehensive geriatric assessment of those classified as pre-frail or frail.
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            Advances and Open Questions in the Science of Subjective Well-Being

            Subjective well-being (SWB) is an extremely active area of research with about 170,000 articles and books published on the topic in the past 15 years. Methodological and theoretical advances have been notable in this period of time, with the increasing use of longitudinal and experimental designs allowing for a greater understanding of the predictors and outcomes that relate to SWB, along with the process that underlie these associations. In addition, theories about these processes have become more intricate, as findings reveal that many associations with SWB depend on people’s culture and values and the context in which they live. This review provides an overview of many major areas of research, including the measurement of SWB, the demographic and personality-based predictors of SWB, and process-oriented accounts of individual differences in SWB. In addition, because a major new focus in recent years has been the development of national accounts of subjective well-being, we also review attempts to use SWB measures to guide policy decisions.
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              Inflammation and immune system alterations in frailty.

               Li Li,  Xu Yao,  X Leng (2011)
              Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome characterized by multisystem dysregulation. Substantial evidence suggests heightened inflammatory state and significant immune system alterations in frailty. A heightened inflammatory state is marked by increases in levels of inflammatory molecules (interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein) and counts of white blood cell and its subpopulations, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of frailty, directly or through its detrimental influence on other physiologic systems. Alterations in the innate immune system include decreased proliferation of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and upregulated monocytic expression of specific stress-responsive inflammatory pathway genes. In the adaptive immune system, although little information is available about potential B-cell changes, significant alterations have been identified in the T-cell compartment, including increased counts of CD8+, CD8+CD28-, CCR5+T cells, above and beyond age-related senescent immune remodeling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                17 December 2018
                December 2018
                : 10
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; rubyyu@ 123456cuhk.edu.hk
                [2 ]CUHK Jockey Club Institute of Ageing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; ceciliatong@ 123456cuhk.edu.hk
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jeanwoowong@ 123456cuhk.edu.hk ; Tel.: +852-3505-3493
                Article
                nutrients-10-01997
                10.3390/nu10121997
                6315631
                30562922
                53d4f9f6-12d8-4353-b173-99d2d544411f
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics

                chewing difficulty, frailty, primary care, geriatric syndrome, oral health

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